Robotic manipulators have been widely used in different medical applications, since they simplify and standardize a variety of operations: visual inspection, cutting, and the delivery of solutions [1]. According to the prior research and commercial products, diverse manipulators have been developed based on cable-driven mechanism [2], shape memory alloy (SMA)-based actuators [3], and pneumatically actuated manipulators [4], among others.

As the medical applications differ, the requirements for the manipulators are varied which explain the diversification of those instruments. In this paper, we focus on an endoscopic robot for patient-administered nasopharynx inspection. With the increase of nasopharynx-related diseases, the demand for nasopharynx inspection has been ever growing [5]. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop an endoscopic device for patients to do the observation by themselves for the sake of prompt disease detection and clinical visit reduction.

However, human nasal cavity...

You do not currently have access to this content.