The paper presents simple schemes for multivariable control of multiple-joint robot manipulators in joint and Cartesian coordinates. The joint control scheme consists of two independent multivariable feedforward and feedback controllers. The feedforward controller is the minimal inverse of the linearized model of robot dynamics and contains only proportional-double-derivative (PD2) terms—implying feedforward from the desired position, velocity and acceleration. This controller ensures that the manipulator joint angles track any reference trajectories. The feedback controller is of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) type and is designed to achieve pole placement. This controller reduces any initial tracking error to zero as desired and also ensures that robust steady-state tracking of step-plus-exponential trajectories is achieved by the joint angles. Simple and explicit expressions for computation of the feedforward and feedback gains are obtained based on the linearized model of robot dynamics. This leads to computationally efficient schemes for either on-line gain computation or off-line gain scheduling to account for variations in the linearized robot model due to changes in the operating point. The joint control scheme is extended to direct control of the end-effector motion in Cartesian space. Simulation results are given for illustration.

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