Abstract

In this work, we develop an efficient computational framework for process space exploration in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) based additive manufacturing technology. This framework aims to find suitable processing conditions by characterizing the probability of encountering common build defects. We employ a Bayesian approach towards inferring a functional relationship between LPBF processing conditions and the unobserved parameters of laser energy absorption and powder bed porosity. The relationship between processing conditions and inferred laser energy absorption is found to have good correspondence to literature measurements of powder bed energy absorption using calorimetric methods. The Bayesian approach naturally enables uncertainty quantification and we demonstrate its utility by performing efficient forward propagation of uncertainties through the modified Eagar-Tsai model to obtain estimates of melt pool geometries, which we validate using out-of-sample experimental data from the literature. These melt pool predictions are then used to compute the probability of occurrence of keyhole and lack-of-fusion based defects using geometry-based criteria. This information is summarized in a probabilistic printability map. We find that the probabilistic printability map can describe the keyhole and lack of fusion behavior in experimental data used for calibration, and is capable of generalizing to wider regions of processing space. This analysis is conducted for SS316L, IN718, IN625, and Ti6Al4V using melt pool measurement data retrieved from the literature.

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