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Research Papers

A Nonlinear Concept of Electromagnetic Energy Harvester for Rotational Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
B. E. Gunn

Wolfson School of Mechanical,
Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: B.E.Gunn@lboro.ac.uk

S. Theodossiades

Wolfson School of Mechanical,
Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: S.Theodossiades@lboro.ac.uk

S. J. Rothberg

Wolfson School of Mechanical,
Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: S.J.Rothberg@lboro.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received March 12, 2018; final manuscript received November 9, 2018; published online February 4, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Alper Erturk.

J. Vib. Acoust 141(3), 031005 (Feb 04, 2019) (13 pages) Paper No: VIB-18-1105; doi: 10.1115/1.4042040 History: Received March 12, 2018; Revised November 09, 2018

Many industrial applications incorporate rotating shafts with fluctuating speeds around a required mean value. This often harmonic component of the shaft speed is generally detrimental, since it can excite components of the system, leading to large oscillations (and potentially durability issues), as well as to excessive noise generation. On the other hand, the addition of sensors on rotating shafts for system monitoring or control poses challenges due to the need to constantly supply power to the sensor and extract data from the system. In order to tackle the requirement of powering sensors for structure health monitoring or control applications, this work proposes a nonlinear vibration energy harvester design intended for use on rotating shafts with harmonic speed fluctuations. The essential nonlinearity of the harvester allows for increased operating bandwidth, potentially across the whole range of the shaft's operating conditions.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the proposed energy harvester—N/S denotes the polarity of the magnet facing the stator core in a radial direction

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Fig. 2

Effect of k1 on cycle average power with all other parameters constant

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Fig. 3

Effect of the cubic nonlinearity on the vibration response of the harvester. The dashed lines represent unstable solution branches that cannot be physically realized.

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Fig. 4

Illustration of the jump-down frequency calculated using Eq. (32) for (i) k3 = 2000 Nm/rad3—no jump-down frequency and (ii) k3 = 960 Nm/rad3—jump-down frequency around 800 rpm

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Fig. 5

Variation of the power output with respect to (a) mass moment of inertia of rotor and (c) cubic component of stiffness. (b) shows the relationship between the optimum k3 and the mass moment of inertia.

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Fig. 6

Variation of the electromagnetic damping with respect to air gap

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Fig. 7

The considered real driving emissions (RDE) drive cycle of the shaft

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Fig. 8

(a) Effect of cubic stiffness and electrical damping ratio on drop down frequency, (b) effect of cubic stiffness and electrical damping ratio on power output, (c) effect of cubic stiffness power output, and (d) effect of electrical damping ratio on power output

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Fig. 9

Flowchart of the optimization process

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Fig. 10

Frequency–response curve of the optimized energy harvester—(a) maximum angular displacement of the rotor and (b) average power output

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Fig. 11

Time history of the optimized energy harvester throughout the drive cycle: (a) engine speed (b) power output of harvester, (c) time history of accelerating transient, and (d) time history of decelerating transient

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