Research Papers

Highly Directional Acoustic Waves Generated by a Horned Parametric Acoustic Array Loudspeaker

[+] Author and Article Information
L. H. Tong

School of Civil Engineering and Architecture,
East China Jiaotong University,
Nanchang 330013, Jiangxi, China

S. K. Lai

Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering,
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
Hung Hom,
Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
e-mail: sk.lai@polyu.edu.hk

J. W. Yan

Key Laboratory of Product Packaging
and Logistics of Guangdong,
Higher Education Institutes,
Jinan University,
Zhuhai 519070, Guangdong, China

C. Li

School of Urban Rail Transportation,
Soochow University,
Suzhou 215131, Jiangsu, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Noise Control and Acoustics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received April 10, 2018; final manuscript received June 25, 2018; published online August 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Ronald N. Miles.

J. Vib. Acoust 141(1), 011012 (Aug 13, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: VIB-18-1154; doi: 10.1115/1.4040771 History: Received April 10, 2018; Revised June 25, 2018

Acoustic horns can enhance the overall efficiency of loudspeakers to emanate highly directional acoustic waves. In this work, a theoretical model is developed to predict difference frequency acoustic fields generated by a parametric array loudspeaker (PAL) with a flared horn. Based on this model, analytical solutions are obtained for exponentially horned PALs. A numerical analysis on the performance of horned PALs subject to various horn parameters (i.e., horn length and flare constant) is implemented. To compare with nonhorned parametric acoustic array (PAA) devices, it is able to generate highly directional acoustic wave beams for a wide range of difference frequencies, in which the generated sound pressure levels at low frequencies can be significantly enhanced. In addition, the equivalent radius of a nonhorned emitter that matches the directivity achieved by a horned one is also quantitatively investigated. The present research will provide useful guidelines for the design and optimization of horned parametric array equipment.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of a horned parametric acoustic loudspeaker with a typical array of piezoelectric transducers; (b) and (c) configuration and coordinate system; and (d) a driven circuit for the parametric array

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Comparison of directivity effect: (a) a nonhorned PAL; and a horned PAL with various flare constants (b) δ=1, (c) δ=5, and (d) δ=7

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Variation of sound pressure levels for different flare constants. The amplitude of the primary frequency wave is pa=1 0 Pa. The inserted figure shows the acoustic pressure response in the low frequency range.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison of the sound beam directivity generated by a horned PAL and a nonhorned PAL at various difference frequencies (a) 100 Hz, (b) 200 Hz, (c) 1000 Hz, and (d) 5000 Hz. The amplitude of the primary frequency wave is pa=1 0 Pa.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Ratio of the equivalent radius of a nonhorned emitter to the radius of a horned emitter for (a) various horn lengths at 5000 Hz; and (b) various flare constants with a horn length of 0.5 m. The radius of the horned emitter is a0 = 0.1 m for both (a) and (b). The inserted graphs show the directivity of the horned emitter and the nonhorned emitter with a0 = 0.1 m.



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