Research Papers

Size Estimation for Naturally Occurring Bearing Faults Using Synchronous Averaging of Vibration Signals

[+] Author and Article Information
Wenyi Wang

Aerospace Division,
Defence Science and Technology
Organisation (DSTO),
506 Lorimer Street,
Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207, Australia
e-mail: wenyi.wang@dsto.defence.gov.au

Nader Sawalhi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University,
Al Khobar 31952, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: nsawalhi@pmu.edu.sa

Andrew Becker

Aerospace Division,
Defence Science and Technology
Organisation (DSTO),
506 Lorimer Street,
Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207, Australia
e-mail: andrew.becker@dsto.defence.gov.au

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received August 16, 2015; final manuscript received May 24, 2016; published online July 19, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Patrick S. Keogh.This work was prepared while under employment by the Government of Commonwealth of Australia as part of the official duties of the author(s), and as such copyright is owned by that Government, which reserves its own copyright under national law.

J. Vib. Acoust 138(5), 051015 (Jul 19, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: VIB-15-1325; doi: 10.1115/1.4033776 History: Received August 16, 2015; Revised May 24, 2016

One of the most critical categories of machine failure is rolling element bearing failure. Most bearing failures start from raceway fatigue spalls. From the initial formation of spalls, a bearing may still have 10–20% useful life remaining. This makes rolling element bearing an ideal candidate component for fault prognosis. The size estimation for bearing raceway spalls can provide crucial information for bearing fault prognosis. Vibration analysis has been used for bearing fault detection and diagnosis for many years. However, the estimation of bearing fault size using vibration analysis has been only found in dealing with simulated or notched ideal bearing faults. It is a significant challenge to estimate the size of naturally occurring bearing faults using vibration analysis. The objective of this research is to define some feasible vibration signal processing methodologies in dealing with size estimation for naturally generated and propagated faults in high-speed bearings. In this paper, we propose a scheme of estimating bearing spall size based on synchronous signal averaging (SSA) with respect to the bearing fault characteristic frequency, combined with envelope and wavelet analyses of the averaged signals. The averaged signal presents the vibration characteristics within one period of impacts produced by the bearing faults. When the fault size is smaller than the pitch spacing of the balls, the features associated with the balls entry into and exit from the spalled zone can be extracted by envelope and wavelet analyses, and then, the fault size can be estimated. The main novelty in this paper is the use of the tacho-less SSA method in size estimation of naturally occurring large spalls in high-speed rolling element bearings. The technique is validated using the vibration data from naturally spalled bearings in a high-speed bearing test rig. The results show that the technique is effective in revealing the entry and exit features needed for the size estimation of naturally occurring bearing faults.

Copyright © 2016 by Commonwealth of Australia
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Fig. 1

A picture of the bearing test rig

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Fig. 2

Pictures of the spalls on the inner race of (a) bearing AC3: IR spall is 6.2 mm long and (b) bearing AC8: IR spall is 4.2 mm long

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Fig. 3

Raw vibration signal with bearing AC3

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Fig. 4

Spectrum of raw vibration signal shown in Fig. 3

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Fig. 5

Three impact periods of raw vibration signal with bearing AC3

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Fig. 6

Identification of dominant bearing fault frequency in the spectrum of raw vibration signal

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Fig. 7

Tacho-less SSA of AC3 bearing vibration signal

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Fig. 8

Square enveloped SSA of AC3 (spall size estimate 6.18 mm)

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Fig. 9

The tacho-less SSA of AC8 (visual spall size 4.2 mm)

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Fig. 10

Square enveloped SSA of AC8 (spall size estimate 4.86 mm)

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Fig. 11

The SSA (in three impact periods) of AC3 bearing

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Fig. 12

Square enveloped SSA (in three impact periods) of AC3 (spall size estimate 6.18 mm)

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Fig. 13

Morlet continuous wavelet analysis of AC3 bearing SSA

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Fig. 14

Daubechies (DB5) wavelet decomposition of AC3 bearing SSA

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Fig. 15

Morlet continuous wavelet analysis of AC8 bearing SSA

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Fig. 16

Daubechies (DB5) wavelet decomposition of AC8 bearing SSA



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