Research Papers

Determination of the State of Wear of High Contact Ratio Gear Sets by Means of Spectrum and Cepstrum Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Stanislav Ziaran

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Slovak University of Technology,
Nam. Slobody 17, 812 31 Bratislava,
Slovak Republic
e-mail: stanislav.ziaran@stuba.sk

Radoslav Darula

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
Aalborg University
Fibigerstraede 16,
9220 Aalborg East, Denmark
e-mail: dra@m-tech.aau.dk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received April 16, 2012; final manuscript received November 19, 2012; published online February 25, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Philippe Velex.

J. Vib. Acoust 135(2), 021008 (Feb 25, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: VIB-12-1107; doi: 10.1115/1.4023208 History: Received April 16, 2012; Revised November 19, 2012

The paper presents basic procedures and methods used for determining the state of wear of high contact ratio (HCR) gear sets comparing frequency spectra and cepstra recorded throughout their lifetime tests, through vibro-acoustic diagnostics. After a study and calculation of characteristic frequencies, the authors experimentally measured the dynamical behavior of the gear sets in order to determine their frequency spectra. To gain additional information about possible damage, cepstrum was evaluated for each measurement as well. Experiments were carried out on a FZG back-to-back test gearbox, equipped with HCR test gears during their lifecycle. The frequency spectrum and cepstrum was assigned to a specific percentage of pitting occurrence. Analyzed values of amplitudes at mesh frequency components and their sidebands (as well as corresponding quefrencies) in the spectrum (and cepstrum) were compared and the state of wear was assigned to each frequency (quefrency) response. The results from lifetime tests of two gear sets indicate that by means of FFT (as well as cepstrum) analysis the incubational phase (i.e., a cavity origination under a surface in contact) of the gear fault can be determined. This is not possible using classical (e.g., visual) methods. Furthermore, it was observed that pitting and thermal scuffing are distinguishable also at higher harmonics (the fifth and even sixth), which can be also used as an indicator of gear damage. Vibro-acoustic diagnostics is a feasible nondisassembling method used for the investigation and prediction of gear failure level in HCR gear wheels. It is shown to be a reliable method capable of predicting failure earlier than a classical visual (disassembling) approach.

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Fig. 3

(a) Detail of investigated HCR gear wheels and (b) fixation of the accelerometer to the gearbox

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Fig. 2

The FZG device—Niemann's gearbox—(a) [6]—used installed in the laboratory before measurements; with open gearboxes—(b)

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Fig. 1

(a)–(d) Phases of pitting origination and development: (a) Cavity origination—incubational phase; (b) capillary origination; (c) oil entering the cavity via capillary; (d) final damage by pitting; (e) tooth flank damaged by pitting.

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Fig. 4

(a) Measurement setup and the main transmission paths of the vibro-acoustic signal measured; (b) the measurement points used for signal strength analysis

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Fig. 7

Vibration spectrum measured during run-in period (second set of gear-wheels, with a pretorque 450 N · m). The first four mesh harmonics are indicated (Hm).

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Fig. 5

Comparison of local RMS level around the first four tooth mesh harmonics in each measurement point for (a) vertical and (b) horizontal direction of measurement

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Fig. 6

Comparison of frequency spectra (a) and cepstrum (b) of the new gear sets and of the gearing with occurrence of pitting

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Fig. 13

Overall cepstrum measured with indicated first three rahmonics of shaft 1 (Rs1), shaft 2 (Rs2), and mesh rahmonics (Rm) of the second set of gear-wheels (pretorque 450 N · m)

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Fig. 14

Development of first three mesh rahmonics in time (values of the rahmonics are listed in Table 4)

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Fig. 8

Development of first four harmonics of mesh frequency during run-in period

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Fig. 9

Cepstrum measured during run-in period (second set of gear-wheels). The first three rahmonics of shaft 1 (Rs1), shaft 2 (Rs2), and mesh rahmonics (Rm) are indicated.

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Fig. 10

Development of first three mesh rahmonics in time (values of the rahmonics are listed in Table 4)

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Fig. 11

Overall spectrum measured with indicated first three mesh harmonics (Hm) of period second set of gear-wheels (pretorque 450 N · m)

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Fig. 12

Development of first four harmonics of mesh frequency

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Fig. 15

Trend characteristics of (a) harmonics and (b) rahmonics (sideband of shaft 1) behavior when pitting starts to occur of the set 1 (Table 3)

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Fig. 16

Level of vibration corresponding incubational phase for first three rahmonics at the defined loading of the set 2

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Fig. 17

(a) Overall frequency spectrum measured with indicated first seven mesh harmonics (frequency analyzer B&K 2515); (b) overall frequency spectrum measured with indicated first six mesh harmonics (used frequency analyzer B&K PULSE)



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