Research Papers

Energy Harvesting, Ride Comfort, and Road Handling of Regenerative Vehicle Suspensions

[+] Author and Article Information
Lei Zuo

e-mail: lei.zuo@stonybrook.edu

Pei-Sheng Zhang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
State University of New York at Stony Brook,
Stony Brook, NY 11794-2300

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Vibration and Acoustics. Manuscript received March 31, 2011; final manuscript received July 14, 2012; published online February 4, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Wei-Hsin Liao.

J. Vib. Acoust 135(1), 011002 (Feb 04, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: VIB-11-1060; doi: 10.1115/1.4007562 History: Received March 31, 2011; Revised July 14, 2012

This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of the power that is available for harvesting in the vehicle suspension system and the tradeoff among energy harvesting, ride comfort, and road handing with analysis, simulations, and experiments. The excitation from road irregularity is modeled as a stationary random process with road roughness suggested in the ISO standard. The concept of system H2 norm is used to obtain the mean value of power generation and the root mean square values of vehicle body acceleration (ride quality) and dynamic tire-ground contact force (road handling). For a quarter car model, an analytical solution of the mean power is obtained. The influence of road roughness, vehicle speed, suspension stiffness, shock absorber damping, tire stiffness, and the wheel and chasses masses to the vehicle performances and harvestable power are studied. Experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical analysis. The results suggest that road roughness, tire stiffness, and vehicle driving speed have great influence on the harvesting power potential, where the suspension stiffness, absorber damping, and vehicle masses are insensitive. At 60 mph on good and average roads, 100–400 W average power is available in the suspensions of a middle-sized vehicle.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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Fig. 1

Quarter-car model with viscous damper (left) and quarter-car model with electromagnetic harvester (right)

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Fig. 2

Block diagram view of overall road-vehicle dynamics

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Fig. 3

Displacement analysis over vehicle speeds: on good road (dashed) and average road (solid)

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Fig. 4

Velocity analysis over vehicle speeds: on good road (dashed) and average road (solid)

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Fig. 5

Power potential in the suspension system of a typical passenger car at various vehicle speeds

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Fig. 6

Ride comfort at various vehicle speeds: on good road (dashed) and average road (solid)

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Fig. 7

Ride safety at various vehicle speeds on good road (dashed) and average road (solid)

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Fig. 8

Effects of tire stiffness on vehicle performances

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Fig. 9

Effects of tire-wheel mass on vehicle performances

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Fig. 10

Effects of sprung mass on vehicle performances

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Fig. 11

Frequency response from ground to suspension velocities of nominal and perturbed vehicle system

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Fig. 12

Effects of suspension damping on vehicle performances

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Fig. 13

Effects of suspension stiffness on vehicle performances

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Fig. 14

Systematic view of experiment setup: road test of a super compact vehicle on Stony Brook campus road

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Fig. 15

Measured shock absorber displacements on a campus road at 25 mph. The RMS displacement is 4.6 mm.

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Fig. 16

Velocities of shock absorber compression and extension at vehicle speed of 25 mph on a campus road. The RMS velocity is 0.086 m/s.

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Fig. 17

Energy dissipation rate of one shock absorber at vehicle speed 25 mph on bitumen campus road, RMS = 14.6 W from one shock absorber

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Fig. 18

Measured suspension power (squared) of one shock absorber in a super compact vehicle on campus road and theoretical predicted power of one shock absorber in a middle size car on good (dashed) and average road (solid)



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