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Research Papers

A Miniature Four-Microphone Array for Two-Dimensional Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Based on Biomimetic Time-Delay Magnification

[+] Author and Article Information
Ling Liu

State Key Laboratory of
Mechanical System and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: dreaming@sjtu.edu.cn

Ming Yang

Marine Design and Research Institute of China,
China State Shipbuilding Corporation,
Shanghai 200011, China
e-mail: young1@sjtu.edu.cn

Yaqiong Zhang

State Key Laboratory of
Mechanical System and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: yaoyaosjtu@sjtu.edu.cn

Xinlei Zhu

State Key Laboratory of
Mechanical System and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: xl.zhu@sjtu.edu.cn

Na Ta

State Key Laboratory of
Mechanical System and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: wutana@sjtu.edu.cn

Zhushi Rao

State Key Laboratory of
Mechanical System and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: zsrao@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Noise Control and Acoustics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received April 6, 2018; final manuscript received November 13, 2018; published online January 16, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Miao Yu.

J. Vib. Acoust 141(2), 021017 (Jan 16, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: VIB-18-1146; doi: 10.1115/1.4042124 History: Received April 06, 2018; Revised November 13, 2018

A miniature microphone array based on interaural time difference (ITD) is designed. This array contains four microphones with certain arrangement and aims for two-dimensional (azimuth and elevation) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation in the whole three-dimensional space. The array can be small because it uses a coupling algorithm that magnifies the time delay between the signals received by every two microphones. The coupling algorithm is built according to a pairwise-coupled multidimensional mechanical model inspired by the ears of the tiny parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. It was verified that the time-delay magnification can be independent of the incident angle when the parameters in the model satisfy specific relationships. This paper further investigates the multidimensional coupled system and advocates to realize the magnification mechanism in algorithm, where the physical parameters can change according to sound frequency to ensure the time-delay magnification. Moreover, the arrangement of microphones is specially designed to help the array to achieve similar measuring accuracy for all directions in the three-dimensional space. Corresponding signal process procedures are also provided. Simulations that use such an array to estimate the azimuth and elevation angles of sound source are performed via general cross-correlation (GCC) method. Results verify the feasibility of the microphone array and show that the accuracy of the estimation increases after the signals are processed by the coupled system.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Formation of ITD between two microphones with a separation of d. Incident direction of sound is represented by incident angle θ or grazing angle α.

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Fig. 2

Mechanical model of the n-dimensional coupled system

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Fig. 3

Comparison of the theoretical time-delay magnification factor and the designed one

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Fig. 4

The arrangement of four microphones in a space rectangular coordinate system and the corresponding spherical coordinate system

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Fig. 5

Flowchart for the signal processing procedures

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Fig. 6

Magnification factors of the time delay between the signals from Mic O and Mic A for case 1

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Fig. 7

Magnification factors of the time delay between the signals from Mic O and Mic C for case 2

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Fig. 8

Comparison of the angle (αOC) estimation accuracy without and with coupled system

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Fig. 9

Comparison of the accuracy of DOA estimation without (left) and with (right) coupled system in case 1

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Fig. 10

Comparison of the accuracy of DOA estimation without (left) and with (right) coupled system in case 2

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Fig. 11

Comparison of the elevation angle estimation accuracy of coupled three-microphone array and coupled four-microphone array in case 2 for the upper half space

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Fig. 12

Comparison of the elevation angle estimation accuracy of coupled three-microphone array and coupled four-microphone array in the case where the azimuth angle changes but the elevation angle is fixed at 85 deg

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Fig. 13

Magnification factors for pure tone signals with frequency different from the design frequency: (a) for sound frequency ω̂=0.9ω and (b) for sound frequency ω̂=1.1ω

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Fig. 14

Magnification factors for relatively broad bandwidth signals with central frequency equal to the design frequency: (a) for signal with bandwidth ω̂∈[0.9ω,1.1ω] and (b) for signal with bandwidth ω̂∈[0.8ω,1.2ω]

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