Research Papers

A Nonlinear Concept of Electromagnetic Energy Harvester for Rotational Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
B. E. Gunn

Wolfson School of Mechanical,
Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: B.E.Gunn@lboro.ac.uk

S. Theodossiades

Wolfson School of Mechanical,
Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: S.Theodossiades@lboro.ac.uk

S. J. Rothberg

Wolfson School of Mechanical,
Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: S.J.Rothberg@lboro.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received March 12, 2018; final manuscript received November 9, 2018; published online February 4, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Alper Erturk.

J. Vib. Acoust 141(3), 031005 (Feb 04, 2019) (13 pages) Paper No: VIB-18-1105; doi: 10.1115/1.4042040 History: Received March 12, 2018; Revised November 09, 2018

Many industrial applications incorporate rotating shafts with fluctuating speeds around a required mean value. This often harmonic component of the shaft speed is generally detrimental, since it can excite components of the system, leading to large oscillations (and potentially durability issues), as well as to excessive noise generation. On the other hand, the addition of sensors on rotating shafts for system monitoring or control poses challenges due to the need to constantly supply power to the sensor and extract data from the system. In order to tackle the requirement of powering sensors for structure health monitoring or control applications, this work proposes a nonlinear vibration energy harvester design intended for use on rotating shafts with harmonic speed fluctuations. The essential nonlinearity of the harvester allows for increased operating bandwidth, potentially across the whole range of the shaft's operating conditions.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Hsu, J.-C. , Tseng, C.-T. , and Chen, Y.-S. , 2014, “ Analysis and Experiment of Self-Frequency-Tuning Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters for Rotational Motion,” Smart Mater. Struct., 23(7), p. 075013. [CrossRef]
Gu, L. , and Livermore, C. , 2010, “ Passive Self-Tuning Energy Harvester for Extracting Energy From Rotational Motion,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 97(8), p. 081904.
Khameneifar, F. , Arzanpour, S. , and Moallem, M. , 2013, “ A Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for Rotary Motion Applications: Design and Experiments,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 18(5), pp. 1527–1534. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. , Zheng, R. , Kaizuka, T. , Su, D. , Nakano, K. , and Cartmell, M. P. , 2015, “ Broadband Vibration Energy Harvesting by Application of Stochastic Resonance From Rotational Environments,” Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top., 224(14–15), pp. 2687–2701. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. , Nakano, K. , Zheng, R. , and Cartmell, M. P. , 2016, “ Adjustable Nonlinear Mechanism System for Wideband Energy Harvesting in Rotational Circumstances,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 744(1), p. 012079. [CrossRef]
Gu, L. , and Livermore, C. , 2012, “ Compact Passively Self-Tuning Energy Harvesting for Rotating Applications,” Smart Mater. Struct., 21(1), p. 015002. [CrossRef]
Roundy, S. , and Tola, J. , 2014, “ Energy Harvester for Rotating Environments Using Offset Pendulum and Nonlinear Dynamics,” Smart Mater. Struct., 23(10), p. 105004.
Wang, Y. J. , Chen, C. D. , and Sung, C. K. , 2013, “ System Design of a Weighted-Pendulum-Type Electromagnetic Generator for Harvesting Energy From a Rotating Wheel,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 18(2), pp. 754–763. [CrossRef]
Yang, Y. , Shen, Q. , Jin, J. , Wang, Y. , Qian, W. , and Yuan, D. , 2014, “ Rotational Piezoelectric Wind Energy Harvesting Using Impact-Induced Resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 105(5), p. 053901. [CrossRef]
Zhang, J. , Fang, Z. , Shu, C. , Zhang, J. , Zhang, Q. , and Li, C. , 2017, “ A Rotational Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for Efficient Wind Energy Harvesting,” Sens. Actuators, A: Phys., 262, pp. 123–129. [CrossRef]
Joyce, B. S. , Farmer, J. , and Inman, D. J. , 2014, “ Electromagnetic Energy Harvester for Monitoring Wind Turbine Blades,” Wind Energy, 17(6), pp. 869–876. [CrossRef]
Pillatsch, P. , Yeatman, E. M. , and Holmes, A. S. , 2012, “ Piezoelectric Rotational Energy Harvester for Body Sensors Using an Oscillating Mass,” Ninth International Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN 2012), London, May 9–12, pp. 6–10.
Pillatsch, P. , Yeatman, E. M. , and Holmes, A. S. , 2014, “ A Piezoelectric Frequency Up-Converting Energy Harvester With Rotating Proof Mass for Human Body Applications,” Sens. Actuators, A: Phys., 206, pp. 178–185. [CrossRef]
Mei, J. , and Li, L. , 2013, “ Split-Electrode Piezoelectric Scavengers for Harvesting Energy From Torsional Motions,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 476, p. 012136. [CrossRef]
Trimble, A. Z. , Lang, J. H. , Pabon, J. , and Slocum, A. , 2010, “ A Device for Harvesting Energy From Rotational Vibrations,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 132(9), p. 091001. [CrossRef]
Kim, G. W. , 2015, “ Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting From Torsional Vibration in Internal Combustion Engines,” Int. J. Automot. Technol., 16(4), pp. 645–651. [CrossRef]
Markovic, M. , and Perriard, Y. , 2007, “ An Analytical Formula for the Back EMF of a Slotted BLDG Motor,” IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference (IEMDC 2007), Antalya, Turkey, May 3–5, pp. 1534–1539.
Owens, B. A. M. , and Mann, B. P. , 2012, “ Linear and Nonlinear Electromagnetic Coupling Models in Vibration-Based Energy Harvesting,” J. Sound Vib., 331(4), pp. 922–937. [CrossRef]
Zhu, Z. Q. , and Howe, D. , 1993, “ Instantaneous Magnetic Field Distribution in Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motors—Part IV: Magnetic Field on Load,” IEEE Trans. Magn., 29(1), pp. 152–158. [CrossRef]
Joo, D., Woo, K., and Kim, D., 2012, “ Calculation of Winding Inductances for a Single-Phase Brushless DC Machine,” J. Magn., 17(3), pp. 196–199. [CrossRef]
Doedel, E. , and Oldeman, B. , 2009, “ Auto 07p: Continuation and Bifurcation Software for Ordinary Differential Equations: Technical Report,” Methods in Molecular Biology, Humana Press, Clifton, NJ, pp. 475–498.
Schilder, F. , 2007, “ Rauto: Running AUTO More Efficiently,” University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, Technical Report. http://www2.mat.dtu.dk/people/F.Schilder/rauto/index.html
Moss, S. D. , Payne, O. R. , Hart, G. A. , and Ung, C. , 2015, “ Scaling and Power Density Metrics of Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices,” Smart Mater. Struct., 24(2), p. 23001. [CrossRef]
Brennan, M. J. , Kovacic, I. , Carrella, A. , and Waters, T. P. , 2008, “ On the Jump-Up and Jump-Down Frequencies of the Duffing Oscillator,” J. Sound Vib., 318(4–5), pp. 1250–1261. [CrossRef]
Jang, S.-J. , Kim, I.-H. , Park, K. , and Jung, H.-J. , 2016, “ An Enhanced Tunable Rotational Energy Harvester With Variable Stiffness System for Low-Frequency Vibration,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C, 230(5), pp. 732–736. [CrossRef]
Luo, J. , Wierschem, N. E. , Fahnestock, L. A. , Spencer, B. F. , Quinn, D. D. , Mcfarland, D. M. , Vakakis, A. F. , and Bergman, L. A. , 2014, “ Design, Simulation, and Large-Scale Testing of an Innovative Vibration Mitigation Device Employing Essentially Nonlinear Elastomeric Springs,” Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 43(12), pp. 1829–1851. [CrossRef]
Furlani, E. P. , 2001, Permanent Magnet and Electromechanical Devices: Materials, Analysis, and Applications, Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
European Commission, 2016, “COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2016/427—of 10 March 2016—Amending Regulation (EC) No. 692/2008 as Regards Emissions From Light Passenger and Commercial Vehicles (Euro 6),” Off. J. Eur. Union, L82(1), p. 1.
Arms, S. W. , Townsend, C. P. , Churchill, D. L. , Galbreath, J. H. , Mundell, S. W. , and Lane, H. , 2005, “ Power Management for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensors,” Proc. SPIE, 5763, pp. 267–275.
Mitcheson, P. D. , Toh, T. T. , Wong, K. H. , Burrow, S. G. , and Holmes, A. S. , 2011, “ Tuning the Resonant Frequency and Damping of an Electromagnetic Energy Harvester Using Power Electronics,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, 58(12), pp. 792–796. [CrossRef]
Cammarano, A. , Neild, S. A. , Burrow, S. G. , Wagg, D. J. , and Inman, D. J. , 2014, “ Optimum Resistive Loads for Vibration-Based Electromagnetic Energy Harvesters With a Stiffening Nonlinearity,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 25(14), pp. 1757–1770. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the proposed energy harvester—N/S denotes the polarity of the magnet facing the stator core in a radial direction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Effect of k1 on cycle average power with all other parameters constant

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Effect of the cubic nonlinearity on the vibration response of the harvester. The dashed lines represent unstable solution branches that cannot be physically realized.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Illustration of the jump-down frequency calculated using Eq. (32) for (i) k3 = 2000 Nm/rad3—no jump-down frequency and (ii) k3 = 960 Nm/rad3—jump-down frequency around 800 rpm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Variation of the power output with respect to (a) mass moment of inertia of rotor and (c) cubic component of stiffness. (b) shows the relationship between the optimum k3 and the mass moment of inertia.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Variation of the electromagnetic damping with respect to air gap

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The considered real driving emissions (RDE) drive cycle of the shaft

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Effect of cubic stiffness and electrical damping ratio on drop down frequency, (b) effect of cubic stiffness and electrical damping ratio on power output, (c) effect of cubic stiffness power output, and (d) effect of electrical damping ratio on power output

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Flowchart of the optimization process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Frequency–response curve of the optimized energy harvester—(a) maximum angular displacement of the rotor and (b) average power output

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Time history of the optimized energy harvester throughout the drive cycle: (a) engine speed (b) power output of harvester, (c) time history of accelerating transient, and (d) time history of decelerating transient



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In