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Research Papers

Denoising Weighting Beamforming Method Applied to Sound Source Localization With Airflow Using Microphone Array

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhongming Xu

The State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
Transmission,
Chongqing University,
Chongqing 400044, China;
School of Automotive Engineering,
Chongqing University,
No. 174 Shazhengjie,
Shapingba, Chongqing 400044, China
e-mail: xuzm@cqu.edu.cn

Kai Tian

School of Automotive Engineering,
Chongqing University,
No. 174 Shazhengjie,
Shapingba, Chongqing 400044, China
e-mail: 20163213036@cqu.edu.cn

Yansong He

The State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
Transmission,
Chongqing University,
Chongqing 400044, China;
School of Automotive Engineering,
Chongqing University,
No. 174 Shazhengjie,
Shapingba, Chongqing 400044, China
e-mail: hys68@cqu.edu.cn

Zhifei Zhang

The State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
Transmission,
Chongqing University,
Chongqing 400044, China;
School of Automotive Engineering,
Chongqing University,
No. 174 Shazhengjie,
Shapingba, Chongqing 400044, China
e-mail: z.zhang@cqu.edu.cn

Shu Li

School of Automotive Engineering,
Chongqing University,
No. 174 Shazhengjie,
Shapingba, Chongqing 400044, China
e-mail: leeshu@cqu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Noise Control and Acoustics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received January 2, 2018; final manuscript received June 3, 2018; published online July 5, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Ronald N. Miles.

J. Vib. Acoust 140(6), 061015 (Jul 05, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: VIB-18-1002; doi: 10.1115/1.4040521 History: Received January 02, 2018; Revised June 03, 2018

Conventional frequency domain beamforming (FDBF) relies on the measured cross-spectral matrix (CSM). However, in wind tunnel tests, the CSM diagonal is contaminated by the interference of incoherent noise after long-time averaging which leads the source map to poor resolution. Diagonal removal (DR) can suppress the noise in beamforming results via the deletion of CSM diagonal, but this method leads to the underestimation of source levels and some negative powers in source maps. Some advanced methods, such as background subtraction, make use of background noise reference to counteract the effects of contamination; however, the results usually become unreliable, because the background noise is difficult to keep constant in different measurements. Diagonal denoising (DD) beamforming is a recent approach to suppress the contamination effects, but it attenuates the noise suppression performance. To overcome the limitations of the above methods, a new method called denoising weighting beamforming (DWB) is proposed in this study on the basis of CSM DD and an iterative regularization method is applied to solve the acoustical inverse problem. Besides, in order to correct the phase mismatch caused by the influence of flow on sound propagation, the shear flow correction is added before using DWB. Experiments on sound source reconstruction are conducted in the environment with the flow. Acoustics data obtained via this method show the successful removal of incoherent noise and the corrected phase mismatch. Furthermore, the sound source localization results are promising and the proposed method is simple to implement.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The two-dimensional model of sound propagation in the environment with flow: (a) complete model and (b) simplified model

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Fig. 2

The three-dimensional (3D) model of sound propagation in the environment with flow

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Fig. 3

Flowchart of the hybrid method in the flow environment

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Fig. 4

Setup of experimental apparatus: (a) positions of experimental apparatus, (b) positions of microphone array and blower fan, (c) positions of the nozzle and speaker, and (d) 18-elements B&K pseudo-random microphones array

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Fig. 5

Evaluation of shear flow corrections at a Mach number of 0.12: (a) the beam map of source with DWB method at 2 kHz, (b) the beam map of source with DWB method and shear flow correction at 2 kHz, (c) the beam map of source with DWB method at 7 kHz, and (d) the beam map of source with DWB method and shear flow correction at 7 kHz

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Fig. 6

The normalized location error of sound sources peak value position versus the frequency

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Fig. 7

Sound source maps with acoustic source driven by sine-wave with flow. The serial numbers 1–4 represent FDBF, DR, DD, and DWB methods, respectively: (a) the source maps at 1 kHz, (b) the source maps at 3 kHz, and (c) the source maps at 6 kHz. The interval of each color is 1.5 dB and the dynamic range of the image is 12 dB.

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Fig. 8

Microphone spectra measured in the test: (a) speaker alone and (b) speaker and flow

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Fig. 9

Sound source maps with a white noise source with flow. The serial numbers 1 to 4 represent FDBF, DR, DD, and DWB methods, respectively: (a) the source maps at 1.03 kHz, (b) the source maps at 3.15 kHz, and (c) the source maps at 6.1 kHz. The interval of each color is 1 dB and the dynamic range of the image is 10 dB.

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Fig. 10

The integrated error levels versus frequency for four methods

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