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Research Papers

Trailing Edge Perforation for Interaction Tonal Noise Reduction of a Contra-Rotating Fan

[+] Author and Article Information
Chen Wang

Laboratory of Aerodynamics and Acoustics,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
HKU Zhejiang Institute of
Research and Innovation,
The University of Hong Kong,
Pokfulam, Hong Kong
e-mail: chadwong@connect.hku.hk

Contributed by the Noise Control and Acoustics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received July 4, 2017; final manuscript received October 12, 2017; published online November 10, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Theodore Farabee.

J. Vib. Acoust 140(2), 021016 (Nov 10, 2017) (14 pages) Paper No: VIB-17-1296; doi: 10.1115/1.4038253 History: Received July 04, 2017; Revised October 12, 2017

This study focuses on a passive noise abatement technique in a small contra-rotating fan, aiming at reducing the interaction noise between the two rotors through porous trailing edge (TE) treatment to the forward rotor. A preliminary design with fixed perforation parameters is experimentally investigated, and 6–7 dB overall noise reduction is achieved compared with baseline design under the same aerodynamic output. A three-dimensional (3D), full-wheel, unsteady-flow numerical simulation of the acoustic design is carried out to better understand the noise reduction mechanism. Comparisons of monitored unsteady forces acting on both the forward and the aft rotor between baseline and perforated fan indicate that such treatment reduces all the unsteady forces. Thus, it can be concluded that the noise reduction would be due to not only the mitigation of viscous wake of forward rotor before impinging upon the downstream blades but also the reduction of the response of the upstream rotor to the potential flow interaction with the downstream rotor. Furthermore, a parametric study in a selected range is conducted to minimize the adverse effect of aerodynamic unloading due to TE perforation and to improve the acoustic benefit. The parameters in the parametric study include perforation ratio, aperture diameter, and perforation distribution. Trends are deducted from this, and it is recommended that there exists an optimal perforation ratio; the smallest possible aperture diameter and the decreasing perforation ratio distribution away from the blade TE should be selected in consideration of both aerodynamic and acoustic effects.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A cascade view of rotor–rotor interaction

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Fig. 2

The 2D lateral view of the tested contra-rotating fan (unit: millimeters)

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Fig. 3

(a) Computer-aided design picture of one perforated upstream blade with d = 0.7 mm and σ = 18.4% and (b) 2D schematic drawing in the vicinity of TE of upstream rotor blades

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Fig. 4

The 2D drawing of the fan test rig

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Fig. 5

Characteristic curves of baseline and perforated blades under the design rotational speeds

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Fig. 6

Comparison of OASPL directivity for baseline and perforated blades under the same aerodynamic output

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Fig. 7

Comparison of (a) the 1/24 octave band spectrum and (b) the cumulative sum of PSD estimate E(f) divided into four subranges, between baseline and perforated blades at 90 deg position

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Fig. 8

Computational domain (R1: forward rotor and R2: aft rotor)

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Fig. 9

Comparison of mean velocity profile across the wake of baseline upstream rotor on r = 40 mm surface at four different axial locations: P1, P2, P3, and P4 in order

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Fig. 10

Comparison of mean velocity profile across the wake of baseline and perforated upstream rotor on r = 40 mm surface at the axial location of P1

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Fig. 11

Comparison of unsteady forces on forward rotor, R1, between baseline fan and perforated fan: (a) circumferential drag force and (b) axial thrust force

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Fig. 12

Comparison of unsteady forces on aft rotor, R2, between baseline fan and perforated fan: (a) circumferential drag force and (b) axial thrust force

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Fig. 13

Contours of relative velocity magnitude (m/s) for radial positions of r = 40 mm for (a) and (b) baseline blades and (c) and (d) perforated blades

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Fig. 14

Four patterns of blade TE perforation with perforation ratio of (a) σ = 36.8%, (b) σ = 18.4%, (c) σ = 9.5%, and (d) σ = 4.7%

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Fig. 15

Characteristic curves of baseline blades and perforated blades with four different perforation ratios under the design rotational speeds

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Fig. 16

Comparison of OASPL directivity for baseline blades and perforated blades with four different perforation ratios under the same aerodynamic output

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Fig. 17

Comparison of the cumulative sum of PSD estimate E(f) divided into four subranges, for baseline blades and perforated blades with four different perforation ratios at 90 deg position

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Fig. 18

Perforated blades with (a) d = 0.7 mm, (b) d = 0.98 mm, and (c) d = 1.38 mm

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Fig. 19

Comparison of OASPL directivity for baseline blades and perforated blades with three different apertures under the same aerodynamic output

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Fig. 20

Comparison of (a) the 1/24 octave band spectrum and (b) the cumulative sum of PSD estimate E(f) divided into four subranges, for baseline blades and perforated blades with three different apertures at 150 deg position

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Fig. 21

Perforated blades with (a) uniform perforation ratio distribution and (b) decreasing perforation ratio distribution

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Fig. 22

Comparison of OASPL directivity for baseline blades and perforated blades with two different perforation distributions under the same aerodynamic output

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