0
Research Papers

The Use of Damping Based Semi-Active Control Algorithms in the Mechanical Smart-Spring System

[+] Author and Article Information
Wander Gustavo Rocha Vieira

Department of Aeronautical Engineering,
Sao Carlos School of Engineering,
University of Sao Paulo,
Avenida Joao Dagnone, 1100,
Sao Carlos 13563-120, Sao Paulo, Brazil
e-mail: wander.vieira@usp.br

Fred Nitzsche

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Carleton University,
1125 Colonel By Drive ME3135,
Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
e-mail: fred_nitzsche@carleton.ca

Carlos De Marqui, Jr.

Department of Aeronautical Engineering,
Sao Carlos School of Engineering,
University of Sao Paulo,
Avenida Joao Dagnone, 1100
Sao Carlos 13563-120, Sao Paulo, Brazil
e-mail: demarqui@sc.usp.br

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received March 8, 2017; final manuscript received September 8, 2017; published online October 20, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Lei Zuo.

J. Vib. Acoust 140(2), 021011 (Oct 20, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: VIB-17-1095; doi: 10.1115/1.4038034 History: Received March 08, 2017; Revised September 08, 2017

In recent decades, semi-active control strategies have been investigated for vibration reduction. In general, these techniques provide enhanced control performance when compared to traditional passive techniques and lower energy consumption if compared to active control techniques. In semi-active concepts, vibration attenuation is achieved by modulating inertial, stiffness, or damping properties of a dynamic system. The smart spring is a mechanical device originally employed for the effective modulation of its stiffness through the use of semi-active control strategies. This device has been successfully tested to damp aeroelastic oscillations of fixed and rotary wings. In this paper, the modeling of the smart spring mechanism is presented and two semi-active control algorithms are employed to promote vibration reduction through enhanced damping effects. The first control technique is the smart-spring resetting (SSR), which resembles resetting control techniques developed for vibration reduction of civil structures as well as the piezoelectric synchronized switch damping on short (SSDS) technique. The second control algorithm is referred to as the smart-spring inversion (SSI), which presents some similarities with the synchronized switch damping (SSD) on inductor technique previously presented in the literature of electromechanically coupled systems. The effects of the SSR and SSI control algorithms on the free and forced responses of the smart-spring are investigated in time and frequency domains. An energy flow analysis is also presented in order to explain the enhanced damping behavior when the SSI control algorithm is employed.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Soong, T. T. , and Spencer, B. F., Jr. , 2002, “ Supplemental Energy Dissipation: State-of-the-Art and State-of-the-Practice,” Eng. Struct., 24(3), pp. 243–259. [CrossRef]
Spencer , B. F., Jr ., and Nagarajaiah, S. , 2003, “ State of the Art of Structural Control,” J. Struct. Eng., 129(7), pp. 845–856. [CrossRef]
Symans, M. D. , and Constantinou, M. C. , 1999, “ Semi-Active Control Systems for Seismic Protection of Structures: A State-of-the-Art Review,” Eng. Struct., 21(6), pp. 469–487. [CrossRef]
Kurata, N. , Kobori, T. , Takahashi, M. , Ishibashi, T. , Niwa, N. , Tagami, J. , and Midorikawa, H. , 2000, “ Forced Vibration Test of a Building With Semi‐Active Damper System,” Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 29(5), pp. 629–645. [CrossRef]
Sahasrabudhe, S. S. , and Nagarajaiah, S. , 2005, “ Semi-Active Control of Sliding Isolated Bridges Using MR Dampers: An Experimental and Numerical Study,” Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 34(8), pp. 965–983. [CrossRef]
Zuo, L. , and Zhang, P. S. , 2013, “ Energy Harvesting, Ride Comfort, and Road Handling of Regenerative Vehicle Suspensions,” ASME J. Vib. Acoust., 135(1), p. 011002. [CrossRef]
Fateh, M. M. , and Alavi, S. S. , 2009, “ Impedance Control of an Active Suspension System,” Mechatronics, 19(1), pp. 134–140. [CrossRef]
Yao, G. Z. , Yap, F. F. , Chen, G. , Li, W. H. , and Yeo, S. H. , 2002, “ MR Damper and Its Application for Semi-Active Control of Vehicle Suspension System,” Mechatronics, 12(7), pp. 963–973. [CrossRef]
Chen, M. Z. , Hu, Y. , Li, C. , and Chen, G. , 2016, “ Application of Semi-Active Inerter in Semi-Active Suspensions Via Force Tracking,” ASME J. Vib. Acoust., 138(4), p. 041014. [CrossRef]
Qin, Y. , Zhao, F. , Wang, Z. , Gu, L. , and Dong, M. , 2017, “ Comprehensive Analysis for Influence of Controllable Damper Time Delay on Semi-Active Suspension Control Strategies,” ASME J. Vib. Acoust., 139(3), p. 031006. [CrossRef]
Onoda, J. , Endot, T. , Tamaoki, H. , and Watanabe, N. , 1991, “ Vibration Suppression by Variable-Stiffness Members,” AIAA J., 29(6), pp. 977–983. [CrossRef]
Onoda, J. , Makihara, K. , and Minesugi, K. , 2003, “ Energy-Recycling Semi-Active Method for Vibration Suppression With Piezoelectric Transducers,” AIAA J., 41(4), pp. 711–719. [CrossRef]
Ledezma-Ramirez, D. F. , Ferguson, N. S. , and Brennan, M. J. , 2011, “ Shock Isolation Using an Isolator With Switchable Stiffness,” J. Sound Vib., 330(5), pp. 868–882. [CrossRef]
Ledezma-Ramirez, D. F. , Ferguson, N. S. , and Brennan, M. J. , 2012, “ An Experimental Switchable Stiffness Device for Shock Isolation,” J. Sound Vib., 331(23), pp. 4987–5001. [CrossRef]
Nitzsche, F. , 2012, “ The Use of Smart Structures in the Realization of Effective Semi-Active Control Systems for Vibration Reduction,” J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng., 34, pp. 371–377. [CrossRef]
Krishna, Y. , Sarma, B. S. , and Shrinivasa, U. , 2003, “ Shock Isolation Using Magnetostrictive Actuator,” Proc. SPIE, 5062, pp. 270–277.
Ismail, M. I. , and Ferguson, N. S. , 2017, “ Passive Shock Isolation Utilising Dry Friction,” Shock Vib., 2017, pp. 1–21. [CrossRef]
Yang, J. , Sun, S. , Li, W. , Du, H. , Alici, G. , and Nakano, M. , 2015, “ Development of a Linear Damper Working With Magnetorheological Shear Thickening Fluids,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 26(14), pp. 1811–1817. [CrossRef]
Zareh, S. H. , Matbou, F. , and Khayyat, A. A. A. , 2015, “ Experiment of New Laboratory Prototyped Magneto-Rheological Dampers on a Light Commercial Vehicle Using Neuro-Fuzzy Algorithm,” J. Vib. Control, 21(15), pp. 3007–3019. [CrossRef]
Nitzsche, F. , Anant, G. , and Zimcik, D. , “Structural Component Having Means for Actively Varying Its Stiffness to Control Vibrations,” U.S. Patent No. 5,973,440.
Wickramasinghe, V. , Chen, Y. , and Zimcik, D. , 2008, “ Experimental Evaluation of the Smart-Spring Impedance Control Approach for Adaptive Vibration Suppression,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 19(2), pp. 171–179. [CrossRef]
Yong, C. , Zimcik, D. G. , Wickramasinghe, V. K. , and Nitzsche, F. , 2004, “ Development of the Smart Spring for Active Vibration Control of Helicopter Blades,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 15(1), pp. 37–47. [CrossRef]
Nitzsche, F. , Harold, T. , Wickramasinghe, V. K. , Yong, C. , and Zimcik, D. G. , 2005, “ Development of a Maximum Energy Extraction Control for the Smart-Spring,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 16(11–12), pp. 1057–1066. [CrossRef]
Oxley, G. , Nitzsche, F. , and Feszty, D. , 2009, “ Smart-Spring Control of Vibration on Helicopter Rotor Blades,” J. Aircr., 46(2), pp. 692–696. [CrossRef]
Anusonti-Inthra, P. , and Gandhi, F. , 2000, “ Helicopter Vibration Reduction Through Cyclic Variations in Rotor Blade Root Stiffness,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 11(2), pp. 153–166. [CrossRef]
Nitzsche, F. , D'Assunção, D. , and De Marqui, C., Jr. , 2015, “ Aeroelastic Control of Non-Rotating and Rotating Wings Using the Dynamic Stiffness Modulation Principle Via Piezoelectric Actuators,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 26(13), pp. 1656–1668. [CrossRef]
Richard, C. , Guyomar, D. , Audigier, D. , and Ching, G. , 1999, “ Semi-Passive Damping Using Continuous Switching of a Piezoelectric Device,” Proc. SPIE, 3672, pp. 104–111.
Richard, C. , Guyomar, D. , Audigier, D. , and Bassaler, H. , 2000, “ Enhanced Semi-Passive Damping Using Continuous Switching of a Piezoelectric Device on an Inductor,” Proc. SPIE, 3989, p. 288.
Bobrow, J. E. , Jabbari, F. , and Thai, K. , 1995, “ An Active Truss Element and Control Law for Vibration Suppression,” Smart Mater. Struct., 4(4), p. 264. [CrossRef]
Jabbari, F. , and Bobrow, J. E. , 2002, “ Vibration Suppression With Resettable Device,” J. Eng. Mech., 128(9), pp. 916–924. [CrossRef]
Karnopp, D. , Crosby, M. J. , and Harwood, R. A. , 1974, “ Vibration Control Using Semi-Active Force Generators,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 96(2), pp. 619–626. [CrossRef]
Hong, K. S. , Sohn, H. C. , and Hedrick, J. K. , 2002, “ Modified Skyhook Control of Semi-Active Suspensions: A New Model, Gain Scheduling, and Hardware-in-the-Loop Tuning,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 124(1), pp. 158–167. [CrossRef]
Sammier, D. , Sename, O. , and Dugard, L. , 2003, “ Skyhook and H8 Control of Semi-Active Suspensions: Some Practical Aspects,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 39(4), pp. 279–308. [CrossRef]
Silva, T. M. P. , and De Marqui, C., Jr. , 2016, “ Energy Analysis of Semi-Passive Control for an Aeroelastic Plate-Like Wing Using Shunted Piezoelectric Materials,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 27(19), pp. 2599–2615. [CrossRef]
Chase, J. G. , Mulligan, K. J. , Gue, A. , Alnot, T. , Rodgers, G. , Mander, J. B. , and Heaton, D. , 2006, “ Re-Shaping Hysteretic Behaviour Using Semi-Active Resettable Device Dampers,” Eng. Struct., 28(10), pp. 1418–1429. [CrossRef]
Mulligan, K. J. , Chase, J. G. , Mander, J. B. , Rodgers, G. W. , Elliott, R. B. , Franco‐Anaya, R. , and Carr, A. J. , 2009, “ Experimental Validation of Semi‐Active Resettable Actuators in a ⅕th Scale Test Structure,” Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 38(4), pp. 517–536. [CrossRef]
Guyomar, D. , Richard, C. , Gehin, C. , and Audigier, D. , 2000, “ Low Consumption Damping of Planar Structures,” 12th IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (ISAF), Honolulu, HI, July 21–Aug. 2, pp. 761–764.
Guyomar, D. , Badel, A. , Lefeuvre, E. , and Richard, C. , 2005, “ Toward Energy Harvesting Using Active Materials and Conversion Improvement by Nonlinear Processing,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 52(4), pp. 584–595. [CrossRef]
Lefeuvre, E. , Badel, A. , Petit, L. , Richard, C. , and Guyomar, D. , 2006, “ Semi-Passive Piezoelectric Structural Damping by Synchronized Switching on Voltage Sources,” J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 17(8–9), pp. 653–660. [CrossRef]
Erturk, A. , and Inman, D. J. , 2008, “ A Distributed Parameter Electromechanical Model for Cantilevered Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters,” ASME J. Vib. Acoust., 130(4), p. 041002. [CrossRef]
Lallart, M. , Lefeuvre, E. , Richard, C. , and Guyomar, D. , 2008, “ Self-Powered Circuit for Broadband, Multimodal Piezoelectric Vibration Control,” Sens. Actuators A, 143(2), pp. 377–382. [CrossRef]
Petit, L. , Lefeuvre, E. , Richard, C. , and Guyomar, D. , 2004, “ A Broadband Semi Passive Piezoelectric Technique for Structural Damping,” Proc. SPIE, 5386, pp. 414–425.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Smart spring concept

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Free body diagram of the main load path of the smart-spring (a) and free body diagram for the auxiliary load path in three different states: disengaged (b), auxiliary load partially engaged (c), and (d) fully engaged

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Detailing of the SSR auxiliary load path releasing/engaging dynamics

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Free response of the smart-spring using the equivalent switching procedures for the (a) soft configuration, (b) hard configuration, (c) SSR, and (d) SSI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Detailing of the SSI auxiliary load path releasing/engaging dynamics

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Time histories of the forces on the smart spring system for the (a) soft configuration, (b) hard configuration, (c) SSR, and (d) SSI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Energy flow analysis considering the (a) soft configuration, (b) hard configuration, (c) SSR, and (d) SSI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Harmonic forced response of the smart-spring using the equivalent switching procedures: (a) SSR and (b) SSI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Harmonic forced response of the main load path of the smart-spring using the SSR, SSI, engaged (hard) and disengaged (soft)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Schematics of a SDOF electromechanically coupled system combined to a nonlinear switching circuit

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The comparison between (a) the electromechanical system described in a mechanical topology and (b) the smart-spring

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The switching pattern of the smart spring: force due to the spring kq for the (a) SSDS scheme and (b) for the SSDI scheme; the switching pattern for the displacement of the main and auxiliary paths of the smart spring using (c) SSDS and (d) SSDI schemes

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In