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Research Papers

A Biologically Inspired Coupled Microphone Array for Sound Source Bearing Estimation

[+] Author and Article Information
Yaqiong Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System
and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Institute of Vibration, Shock and Noise,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: yaoyaosjtu@sjtu.edu.cn

Ming Yang

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System
and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Institute of Vibration, Shock and Noise,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: Young1@sjtu.edu.cn

Xinlei Zhu

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System
and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Institute of Vibration, Shock and Noise,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: xl.zhu@sjtu.edu.cn

Na Ta

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System
and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Institute of Vibration, Shock and Noise,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: wutana@sjtu.edu.cn

Zhushi Rao

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System
and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Institute of Vibration, Shock and Noise,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: zsrao@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Noise Control and Acoustics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received May 16, 2017; final manuscript received August 24, 2017; published online October 4, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ronald N. Miles.

J. Vib. Acoust 140(1), 011019 (Oct 04, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: VIB-17-1211; doi: 10.1115/1.4037852 History: Received May 16, 2017; Revised August 24, 2017

The Ormia ochracea, a species of parasitic fly, has a remarkable localization ability despite the tiny interaural distance compared with the incoming wavelength. The mechanical coupling between its ears enhances the differences of the two received signals, the main cues to locate the source. Inspired by the coupling mechanism, we present a miniature coupled two-microphone array for estimating sound source horizontal bearing. The coupled array consists of a standard two-microphone array and a two-input, two-output filter which implements the coupling. The relationship between filter parameters and time delay magnification is investigated to provide theoretical support for array design. With appropriate parameters, the time delay of received signals can be linearly magnified. Based on the linear magnification, we present a method for estimating source direction using the coupled array. The influence of time delay magnification on time delay estimation accuracy is explored through the general cross-correlation (GCC) method. Experiments are conducted to verify the coupled array and demonstrate its advantages on improving the resolution of estimation of time delay and accuracy of bearing estimation compared with the standard array with the same element spacing.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Mechanical model of the coupled ears of the Ormia ochracea [1] and (b) the biologically inspired coupled microphone array

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Fig. 2

The relationships of the OTD and ITD for the different magnification factors. The distance between the two microphones is 3 cm, and the sound frequency is ω=1885 rad/s.

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Fig. 3

The relationship between the average of the approximate error and magnification factor for different sound frequencies

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Fig. 4

Time delays of the outputs versus incident angles for the standard and coupled microphone arrays

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Fig. 5

Estimates of the ITD for the standard and coupled microphone arrays compared with theoretical values

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Fig. 6

The estimation accuracy of the ITD for the standard and coupled arrays under different conditions

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Fig. 7

Experimental setup in the anechoic chamber and the control room

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Fig. 8

The measurement system in the anechoic chamber

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Fig. 10

Bearing estimation results for the coupled and standard microphone arrays

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Fig. 9

Estimates of the OTD for the coupled and standard microphone arrays

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