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Research Papers

Modeling of a Wind Turbine Rotor Blade System

[+] Author and Article Information
Dayuan Ju

Department of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Calgary,
2500 University Drive NW,
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
e-mail: dju@ucalgary.ca

Qiao Sun

Department of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
University of Calgary,
2500 University Drive NW,
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
e-mail: qsun@ucalgary.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received November 5, 2016; final manuscript received April 18, 2017; published online July 13, 2017. Assoc. Editor: John Yu.

J. Vib. Acoust 139(5), 051013 (Jul 13, 2017) (15 pages) Paper No: VIB-16-1532; doi: 10.1115/1.4036633 History: Received November 05, 2016; Revised April 18, 2017

In wind turbine blade modeling, the coupling between rotor rotational motion and blade vibration has not been thoroughly investigated. The inclusion of the coupling terms in the wind turbine dynamics equations helps us understand the phenomenon of rotor oscillation due to blade vibration and possibly diagnose faults. In this study, a dynamics model of a rotor-blade system for a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT), which describes the coupling terms between the blade elastic movement and rotor gross rotation, is developed. The model is developed by using Lagrange's approach and the finite-element method has been adopted to discretize the blade. This model captures two-way interactions between aerodynamic wind flow and structural response. On the aerodynamic side, both steady and unsteady wind flow conditions are considered. On the structural side, blades are considered to deflect in both flap and edge directions while the rotor is treated as a rigid body. The proposed model is cross-validated against a model developed in the simulation software fatigue, aerodynamics, structure, and turbulence (fast). The coupling effects are excluded during the comparison since fast does not include these terms. Once verified, we added coupling terms to our model to investigate the effects of blade vibration on rotor movement, which has direct influence on the generator behavior. It is illustrated that the inclusion of coupling effects can increase the sensitivity of blade fault detection methods. The proposed model can be used to investigate the effects of different terms as well as analyze fluid–structure interaction.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A three-blade horizontal wind turbine: (a) HAWT configuration and (b) blade rotational motion

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Fig. 2

Blade elastic motion

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Fig. 3

Nodal degrees-of-freedom in the flapwise direction

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Fig. 4

Numerical solution of aerodynamic loads

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Fig. 5

Computational algorithm to solve Eq. (28)

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Fig. 6

Energy drift for proposed model: (a) steady case and (b) unsteady case

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Fig. 7

Rotor speed and blade deflection under different steady wind speed: (a) rotor speed when wind speed is 10 m/s, (b) rotor speed when wind speed is 15 m/s, (c) blade tip flapwise deflection when wind speed is 10 m/s, (d) blade tip flapwise deflection when wind speed is 15 m/s, (e) blade tip edgewise deflection when wind speed is 10 m/s, and (f) blade tip edgewise deflection when wind speed 15 m/s

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Fig. 8

Rotor speed and blade deflection for unsteady wind speed: (a) wind speed for simulation, (b) rotor speed when pitch angle is 7.5 deg, (c) rotor speed when pitch angle is 15 deg, (d) blade tip flapwise deflection when pitch angle is 7.5 deg, (e) blade tip flapwise deflection when pitch angle is 15 deg, (f) blade tip edgewise deflection when pitch angle is 7.5 deg, and (g) blade tip edgewise deflection when pitch angle is 15 deg

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Fig. 9

Aerodynamic torque and blade flapwise deflection with wind speed 15 m/s, pitch angle 15 deg: (a) blade tip flapwise deflection, (b) individual blade aerodynamic torque, (c) total aerodynamic torque, (d) frequency component of blade 1 deflection, (e) frequency component of blade 1 torque, and (f) frequency component of total torque

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Fig. 10

Rotor blade response with bilinear stiffness on blade 3. Wind speed 12 m/s, pitch angle 15 deg: (a) blade flapwise tip deflection comparison, (b) frequency component of blade deflection, (c) rotor speed comparison, and (d) frequency component of rotor speed.

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Fig. 11

Rotor speed response compare with and without coupling. Wind speed 12 m/s, pitch angle 15 deg: (a) rotor speed comparison in time domain and (b) rotor speed comparison in frequency domain.

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