0
Research Papers

Equivalent Source Method-Based Nearfield Acoustic Holography in a Moving Medium

[+] Author and Article Information
Chuan-Xing Bi

Institute of Sound and Vibration Research,
Hefei University of Technology,
193 Tunxi Road,
Hefei 230009, China
e-mail: cxbi@hfut.edu.cn

Bi-Chun Dong

Institute of Sound and Vibration Research,
Hefei University of Technology,
193 Tunxi Road,
Hefei 230009, China
e-mail: dongbchabc@163.com

Xiao-Zheng Zhang

Institute of Sound and Vibration Research,
Hefei University of Technology,
193 Tunxi Road,
Hefei 230009, China
e-mail: xzhengzhang@hfut.edu.cn

Yong-Bin Zhang

Institute of Sound and Vibration Research,
Hefei University of Technology,
193 Tunxi Road,
Hefei 230009, China
e-mail: ybzhang@hfut.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Noise Control and Acoustics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received December 22, 2016; final manuscript received February 28, 2017; published online July 13, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Miao Yu.

J. Vib. Acoust 139(5), 051017 (Jul 13, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: VIB-16-1606; doi: 10.1115/1.4036498 History: Received December 22, 2016; Revised February 28, 2017

To identify sound sources situated in a fluid flow, an equivalent source method (ESM)-based nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) in a moving medium is proposed, and two types of acoustic inputs, pressure and particle velocity, are considered. In particular, an analytical relationship between the particle velocity perpendicular to the flow direction and the equivalent source strength is deduced, which makes it possible to realize the reconstruction with particle velocity input. Compared to the planar NAH in a moving medium, the proposed method is applicable to sound sources with more complicated geometries. Numerical simulations with sound sources distributed over two types of geometries including planar geometry and nonplanar one are conducted to test the performances of the proposed method. The results indicate that the proposed method provides satisfactory reconstructed results whatever with pressure input or with particle velocity input, and it is valid and robust over a wide range of flow velocities and frequencies and under different levels of background noise.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Williams, E. G. , Maynard, J. D. , and Skudrzyk, E. , 1980, “ Sound Source Reconstructions Using a Microphone Array,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 68(1), pp. 340–344. [CrossRef]
Maynard, J. D. , Williams, E. G. , and Lee, Y. , 1985, “ Nearfield Acoustic Holography—I: Theory of Generalized Holography and the Development of NAH,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 78(4), pp. 1395–1413. [CrossRef]
Williams, E. G. , Dardy, H. D. , and Washburn, K. B. , 1987, “ Generalized Nearfield Acoustical Holography for Cylindrical Geometry: Theory and Experiment,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 81(2), pp. 389–407. [CrossRef]
Jacobsen, F. , Moreno-Pescador, G. , Fernandez-Grande, E. , and Hald, J. , 2011, “ Near Field Acoustic Holography With Microphones on a Rigid Sphere (L),” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 129(6), pp. 3461–3464. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bai, M. R. , 1992, “ Application of BEM (Boundary Element Method)-Based Acoustic Holography to Radiation Analysis of Sound Sources With Arbitrarily Shaped Geometries,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 92(1), pp. 533–549. [CrossRef]
Bi, C. X. , Chen, X. Z. , Chen, J. , and Zhou, R. , 2005, “ Nearfield Acoustic Holography Based on the Equivalent Source Method,” Sci. China, Ser. E, 48(3), pp. 338–353. [CrossRef]
Ruhala, R. J. , 1999, “ A Study of Tire/Pavement Interaction Noise Using Near-Field Acoustical Holography,” Ph.D. thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT.......103R
Ruhala, R. J. , and Swanson, D. C. , 2002, “ Planar Near-Field Acoustical Holography in a Moving Medium,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 112(2), pp. 420–429. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kwon, H. S. , Niu, Y. , and Kim, Y. J. , 2010, “ Planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography in Moving Fluid Medium at Subsonic and Uniform Velocity,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 128(4), pp. 1823–1832. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kim, Y. J. , and Niu, Y. , 2012, “ Improved Statistically Optimal Nearfield Acoustic Holography in Subsonically Moving Fluid Medium,” J. Sound Vib., 331(17), pp. 3945–3960. [CrossRef]
Dong, B. C. , Bi, C. X. , Zhang, X. Z. , and Zhang, Y. B. , 2014, “ Patch Near-Field Acoustic Holography in a Moving Medium,” Appl. Acoust., 86(8), pp. 71–79. [CrossRef]
Parisot-Dupuis, H. , Simon, F. , and Piot, E. , 2011, “ Aeroacoustic Sources Localization by Means of Nearfield Acoustic Holography Adapted to Wind Tunnel Conditions,” 40th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering (Inter-Noise 2011), Osaka, Japan, Sept. 4–7, pp. 1749–1754.
Parisot-Dupuis, H. , Simon, F. , Piot, E. , and Micheli, F. , 2013, “ Non-Intrusive Planar Velocity-Based Nearfield Acoustic Holography in Moving Fluid Medium,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 133(6), pp. 4087–4097. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Koopmann, G. H. , Song, L. , and Fahnline, J. B. , 1989, “ A Method for Computing Acoustic Fields Based on the Principle of Wave Superposition,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 86(6), pp. 2433–2438. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. B. , Chen, X. Z. , Bi, C. X. , and Chen, J. , 2008, “ Planar Near-Field Acoustic Holography Based on Equivalent Source Method and Its Experimental Investigation,” Chin. J. Acoust., 27(3), pp. 250–260.
Wu, T. W. , and Lee, L. , 1994, “ A Direct Boundary Integral Formulation for Acoustic Radiation in a Subsonic Uniform Flow,” J. Sound Vib., 175(1), pp. 51–63. [CrossRef]
Golub, G. H. , Heath, M. , and Wahba, G. , 1979, “ Generalized Cross-Validation as a Method for Choosing a Good Ridge Parameter,” Technometrics, 21(2), pp. 215–223. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. B. , Jacobsen, F. , Bi, C. X. , and Chen, X. Z. , 2009, “ Near Field Acoustic Holography Based on the Equivalent Source Method and Pressure-Velocity Transducers,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 126(3), pp. 1257–1263. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fink, M. , and Prada, C. , 2001, “ Acoustic Time-Reversal Mirrors,” Inverse Probl., 17(1), pp. R1–R38. [CrossRef]
Mimani, A. , Doolan, C. J. , and Medwell, P. R. , 2015, “ Stability and Accuracy of Aeroacoustic Time-Reversal Using the Pseudo-Characteristic Formulation,” Int. J. Acoust. Vib., 20(4), pp. 226–243.
Mueller, T. J. , 2002, Aeroacoustic Measurements, Springer, Berlin, pp. 1–313.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Geometry of ESM-based NAH in a moving medium

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The pressures on the reconstruction plane: the theoretical pressure (a), the reconstructed pressure by ESM-based NAH in a moving medium with pressure input (b), and the reconstructed pressure by ESM-based NAH in a moving medium with particle velocity input (c)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The pressures on the reconstruction plane: the reconstructed pressure by planar NAH in a moving medium with pressure input (a) and the reconstructed pressure by planar NAH in a moving medium with particle velocity input (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Reconstruction errors at different flow velocities provided by the ESM-based NAH in a moving medium (MESM) with pressure input (solid line) and with particle velocity input (dashed line) and by conventional ESM-based NAH (CESM) with pressure input (dotted line) and with particle velocity input (dashed–dotted line)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Reconstruction errors at different frequencies provided by ESM-based NAH in a moving medium with pressure input (solid line) and with particle velocity input (dashed line) when M = 0.3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Reconstruction errors for different SNRs provided by ESM-based NAH in a moving medium with pressure input (solid line) and with particle velocity input (dashed line) when M = 0.3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Layout of the monopoles (a) and layout of the measurement points, the reconstruction points, and the equivalent sources (b) on the cross section y–o–z plane

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The pressures on the reconstruction surface: the theoretical pressure (a), the reconstructed pressure by ESM-based NAH in a moving medium with pressure input (b), and the reconstructed pressure by ESM-based NAH in a moving medium with particle velocity input (c)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Reconstruction errors at different flow velocities provided by the ESM-based NAH in a moving medium (MESM) with pressure input (solid line) and with particle velocity input (dashed line) and by conventional ESM-based NAH (CESM) with pressure input (dotted line) and with particle velocity input (dashed–dotted line)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Reconstruction errors at different frequencies obtained by ESM-based NAH in a moving medium with pressure input (solid line) and with particle velocity input (dashed line) when M = 0.3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Reconstruction errors for different SNRs provided by ESM-based NAH in a moving medium with pressure input (solid line) and with particle velocity input (dashed line) when M = 0.3

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In