0
Research Papers

Acoustic Modeling of Charge Air Coolers

[+] Author and Article Information
Magnus Knutsson

Noise & Vibration Centre,
Volvo Car Group,
Dept 91620/PV2C2,
Göteborg SE-405 31, Sweden
e-mail: magnus.knutsson@volvocars.com

Mats Åbom

KTH-CCGEx,
The Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory for Sound and Vibration Research,
KTH-Royal Institute of Technology,
Stockholm SE-100 44, Sweden
e-mail: matsabom@kth.se

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Noise Control and Acoustics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received October 16, 2016; final manuscript received February 22, 2017; published online May 30, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Theodore Farabee.

J. Vib. Acoust 139(4), 041010 (May 30, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: VIB-16-1505; doi: 10.1115/1.4036276 History: Received October 16, 2016; Revised February 22, 2017

The necessity of reducing CO2 emissions has lead to an increased number of passenger cars that utilize turbocharging to maintain performance when the internal combustion (IC) engines are downsized. Charge air coolers (CACs) are used on turbocharged engines to enhance the overall gas exchange efficiency. Cooling of charged air increases the air density and thus the volumetric efficiency and also increases the knock margin (for petrol engines). The acoustic properties of charge coolers have so far not been extensively treated in the literature. Since it is a large component with narrow flow passages, it includes major resistive as well as reactive properties. Therefore, it has the potential to largely affect the sound transmission in air intake systems and should be accurately considered in the gas exchange optimization process. In this paper, a frequency domain acoustic model of a CAC for a passenger car is presented. The cooler consists of two conical volumes connected by a matrix of narrow ducts where the cooling of the air takes place. A recently developed model for sound propagation in narrow ducts that takes into account the attenuation due to thermoviscous boundary layers and interaction with turbulence is combined with a multiport representation of the tanks to obtain an acoustic two-port representation where flow is considered. The predictions are compared with experimental data taken at room temperature and show good agreement. Sound transmission loss increasing from 5 to over 10 dB in the range 50–1600 Hz is demonstrated implying good noise control potential.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Rafael, H. , 2000, “ A Two-Port Model for a Turbo-Charger Compressor and Intercooler,” M.Sc. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Desantes, J. M. , Torregrosa, A. J. , Broatch, A. , and Climent, H. , 2006, “ Silencing Capabilities of Non-Silencer Elements: An Underused Potential?,” Fourth Styrian NVH Congress, Graz, Austria, Nov. 15–17, pp. 105–122.
Knutsson, M. , and Åbom, M. , 2007, “ Acoustic Analysis of Charge Air Coolers,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-2208.
Knutsson, M. , and Åbom, M. , 2009, “ Sound Propagation in Narrow Tubes Including Effects of Viscothermal and Turbulent Damping With Application to Charge Air Coolers,” J. Sound Vib., 320(1–2), pp. 289–321. [CrossRef]
Elnemr, Y. , 2011, “ Acoustic Modeling and Testing of Exhaust and Intake System Components,” Lic. Tech. thesis, TRITA-AVE 2011:51, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Mezher, H. , Chalet, D. , Migaud, J. , Raimbault, V. , and Chesse, P. , 2013, “ Transfer Matrix Measurements for Studying Intake Wave Dynamics Applied to Charge Air Coolers With Experimental Engine Validation in the Frequency Domain and the Time Domain,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 227(9), pp. 1348–1359. [CrossRef]
Mezher, H. , Chalet, D. , Migaud, J. , Raimbault, V. , and Chesse, P. , 2014, “ Wave Dynamics Measurements and Characterization of a Charge Air Cooler at the Intake of an Internal Combustion Engine With Integration Into a Nonlinear Code,” Int. J. Engine Res., 15(6), pp. 664–683. [CrossRef]
Astley, R. J. , and Cummings, A. , 1995, “ Wave Propagation in Catalytic Converters: Formulation of the Problem and Finite Element Solution Scheme,” J. Sound Vib., 188(5), pp. 635–657. [CrossRef]
Dokumaci, E. , 1995, “ Sound Transmission in Narrow Pipes With Superimposed Uniform Mean Flow and Modelling the Automobile Catalytic Converters,” J. Sound Vib., 182(5), pp. 799–808. [CrossRef]
Howe, M. S. , 1995, “ The Damping of Sound by Wall Turbulent Shear Layers,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 98(3), pp. 1723–1730. [CrossRef]
Peters, M. C. A. M. , Hirschberg, A. , Reijnen, A. J. , and Wijnands, A. P. J. , 1993, “ Damping and Reflection Coefficient Measurements for an Open Pipe at Low Mach and Low Helmholtz Numbers,” J. Fluid Mech., 256, pp. 499–534. [CrossRef]
Knutsson, M. , and Åbom, M. , 2010, “ The Effect of Turbulence Damping on Acoustic Wave Propagation in Tubes,” J. Sound Vib., 329(22), pp. 4719–4739. [CrossRef]
Dokumaci, E. , 2009, “ On Attenuation of Plane Sound Waves in Turbulent Mean Flow,” J. Sound Vib., 320(4–5), pp. 1131–1136. [CrossRef]
Weng, C. , Boij, S. , and Hanifi, C. , 2013, “ The Attenuation of Sound by Turbulence in Internal Flows,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 133(6), pp. 3764–3776. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Weng, C. , Boij, S. , and Hanifi, C. , 2015, “ On the Calculation of the Complex Wavenumber of Plane Waves in Rigid-Walled Low-Mach-Number Turbulent Pipe Flows,” J. Sound Vib., 354, pp. 132–153. [CrossRef]
Ronneberger, D. , and Ahrens, C. D. , 1977, “ Wall Shear Stress Caused by Small Amplitude Perturbations of Turbulent Boundary-Layer Flow: An Experimental Investigation,” J. Fluid Mech., 83(3), pp. 433–464. [CrossRef]
Elnady, T. , and Åbom, M. , 2006, “ SIDLAB: New 1D Sound Propagation Software for Complex Duct Networks,” 13th International Congress on Sound and Vibration (ICSV), Vienna, Austria, July 2–6, pp. 4262–4269.
Zwikker, C. , and Kosten, C. W. , 1949, Sound Absorbing Materials, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Knutsson, M. , Lennblad, J. , Bodén, H. , and Åbom, M. , 2011, “ A Study on Acoustical Time-Domain Two-Ports Based on Digital Filters With Application to Automotive Air Intake Systems,” SAE Int. J. Passenger Cars—Mech. Syst., 4(2), pp. 970–982. [CrossRef]
Knutsson, M. , and Åbom, M. , 2012, “ Low Frequency Damping From Turbulence With Application to Charge Air Coolers,” 41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering (Inter-Noise), New York, Aug. 19–22, pp. 9424–9433.
Montenegro, G. , Della Torre, A. , Onorati, A. , Fairbrother, R. , Elnemr, Y. , and Dolinar, A. , 2012, “ Quasi-3D Acoustic Modelling of Common Intake and Exhaust Components,” 19th International Congress on Sound and Vibration (ICSV), Vilnius, Lithuania, July 8–12, pp. 2430–2437.
Munjal, M. L. , 1987, Acoustics of Ducts and Mufflers With Application to Exhaust and Ventilation System Design, Wiley, New York.
Dokumaci, E. , 1997, “ A Note on Transmission of Sound in a Wide Pipe With Mean Flow and Viscothermal Attenuation,” J. Sound Vib., 208(4), pp. 653–655. [CrossRef]
Davies, P. O. A. L. , and Doak, P. E. , 1990, “ Spherical Wave Propagation in a Conical Pipe With Mean Flow,” J. Sound Vib., 137(2), pp. 343–346. [CrossRef]
Davies, P. O. A. L. , and Doak, P. E. , 1990, “ Wave Transfer to and From Conical Diffusers With Mean Flow,” J. Sound Vib., 138(2), pp. 345–350. [CrossRef]
Easwaran, V. , and Munjal, M. L. , 1991, “ Transfer Matrix Modeling of Hyperbolic and Parabolic Ducts With Incompressible Mean Flow,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 90(4), pp. 2163–2172. [CrossRef]
Easwaran, V. , and Munjal, M. L. , 1992, “ Plane Wave Analysis of Conical and Exponential Pipes With Incompressible Mean Flow,” J. Sound Vib., 152(1), pp. 73–93. [CrossRef]
Åbom, M. , 1987, “ An Analytical Model for Reactive Silencers Based on Bragg-Scattering,” J. Sound Vib., 112(2), pp. 384–388. [CrossRef]
Allam, S. , and Åbom, M. , 2005, “ Modeling and Testing of After-Treatment Devices,” ASME J. Vib. Acoust., 128(3), pp. 347–356. [CrossRef]
LMS International N.V., 2005, “  SYSNOISE Rev. 5.6, User's Manual,” LMS-Numerical Technologies, Leuven, Belgium.
Peat, K. S. , 1994, “ A First Approximation to the Effects of Mean flow on Sound Propagation Through Capillary Tubes,” J. Sound Vib., 175(4), pp. 475–489. [CrossRef]
Ih, J.-G. , Park, C.-M. , and Kim, H.-J. , 1996, “ A Model for Sound Propagation in Capillary Ducts With Mean Flow,” J. Sound Vib., 190(2), pp. 163–175. [CrossRef]
Jeong, K.-W. , and Ih, J.-G. , 1996, “ A Numerical Study on the Propagation of Sound Through Capillary Tubes With Mean Flow,” J. Sound Vib., 198(1), pp. 67–79. [CrossRef]
Weng, C. , and Bake, F. , 2016, “ An Analytical Model for Boundary Layer Attenuation of Acoustic Modes in Rigid Circular Ducts With Uniform Flow,” Acta Acust. Acust., 102(6), pp. 1138–1141. [CrossRef]
Vennard, J. K. , and Street, R. L. , 1982, Elementary Fluid Mechanics, Wiley, New York.
Allam, S. , and Åbom, M. , 2006, “ Investigation of Damping and Radiation Using Full Plane Wave Decomposition in Ducts,” J. Sound Vib., 292(3–5), pp. 519–534. [CrossRef]
Ronneberger, D. , 1975, “ Genaue Messung der Schalldämpfung und der Phasengeschwindigkeit in Durchströmten Rohren in Hinblick auf die Wechselwirkung zwischen Schall und Turbulenz,” Habilitation thesis, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakulttät der Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
Åbom, M. , 1991, “ Measurement of the Scattering-Matrix of Acoustical Two-Ports,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process., 5(2), pp. 89–104. [CrossRef]
Eckert, E. R. G. , and Irvine, T. E. , 1956, “ Flow in Corners of Passages With Noncircular Cross Sections,” Trans. ASME, 78, pp. 709–718.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

CAC used for validation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Internal geometry of a cooling channel (geometry of turbulators and narrow cooling tubes indicated) in the validation CAC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic representation of a generic air-to-air CAC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Definition of acoustic variables at multiport openings. Left side—inlet volume and right side—outlet volume.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Predicted attenuation in the upstream direction for one cooling tube at Ma = 0.08

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Predicted attenuation in the downstream direction for one cooling tube at Ma = 0.08

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Predicted phase speed ratio in the downstream direction for one cooling tube at Ma = 0.08

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Experimental and predicted transmission loss in the upstream direction for complete CAC at Ma = 0.1 in main duct (Ma = 0.08 in cooling tubes)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Predicted phase speed ratio in the upstream direction for one cooling tube at Ma = 0.08

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Layout of the MWL/KTH test rig for determination of acoustic two-port data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Experimental and predicted transmission loss in the downstream direction for complete CAC at Ma = 0.1 in main duct (Ma = 0.08 in cooling tubes)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In