0
Research Papers

# A Three-Dimensional Numerical Investigation of Air Pumping Noise Generation in Tires

[+] Author and Article Information
Prashanta Gautam

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Akron,
Akron, OH 44325
e-mail: pg37@zips.uakron.edu

Abhilash J. Chandy

Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Akron,
Akron, OH 44325
e-mail: achandy@uakron.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Noise Control and Acoustics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received January 28, 2016; final manuscript received July 5, 2016; published online August 8, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Sheryl M. Grace.

J. Vib. Acoust 138(6), 061005 (Aug 08, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: VIB-16-1057; doi: 10.1115/1.4034100 History: Received January 28, 2016; Revised July 05, 2016

## Abstract

Tire noise reduction is an important aspect of overall vehicle noise reduction. However, due to the complex nature of tire noise generation and correlation between various generation mechanisms, it is difficult to isolate, predict, and control tire noise. Air-related noise generation mechanisms in tires are tough to predict experimentally, resulting in the need for an accurate numerical model. Computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) is used here to propose a numerical tool capable of predicting air-pumping noise generation. Slot deformations are prescribed by custom functions instead of using structural solvers and the rotation of tire is represented by using mesh motion and deformation techniques. Near-field and far-field acoustic characteristics are predicted using fluid dynamic equations and acoustic models. The use of various spectral analysis tools show that the proposed model is capable of predicting the high frequency air-pumping noise while also predicting other air-related mechanisms such as pipe resonance, Helmholtz resonance, and rotational turbulence. This study is intended to provide an understanding of the various air-related noise generation mechanisms so that numerical models can be used in the future to predict tire acoustics economically and effectively.

<>

## References

Iwao, K. , and Yamazaki, I. , 1996, “ A Study of the Mechanism of Tire/Road Noise,” JSAE Rev., 17(2), pp. 139–144.
Heckl, M. , 1986, “ Tyre Noise Generation,” Wear, 113(1), pp. 157–170.
Gibbs, D. , Iwasaki, R. , Bernhard, R. , Bledsoe, J. , Carlson, D. , Corbisier, C. , Fults, K. , Hearne, T., Jr. , McMullen, K. , Roberts, J. , Rochat, J. , Scofield, L. , and Swanlund, M. , 2005, “ Quiet Pavement Systems in Europe,” U.S. Department of Transportation, Technical Report No. FHWA-PL-05-011.
Sandberg, U. , and Ejsmont, J. , 2002, Tyre/Road Noise Reference Book, INFORMEX, Kisa, Sweden.
Eisenblaetter, J. , Walsh, S. , and Krylov, V. , 2010, “ Air-Related Mechanisms of Noise Generation by Solid Rubber Tyres With Cavities,” Appl. Acoust., 71(9), pp. 854–860.
Graf, R. , Kuo, C.-Y. , Dowling, A. , and Graham, W. , 2002, “ On the Horn Effect of a Tyre/Road Interface, Part I: Experiment and Computation,” J. Sound Vib., 256(3), pp. 417–431.
Ronneberger, K. S. D. , and Schaaf, K. , 1982, “ Noise Radiation From Rolling Tires-Sound Amplification by the ‘Horn Effect’,” Inter-Noise 1982, pp. 131–134.
Jiasheng, Y. , 2013, “ Tire-Pavement Noise Simulation and Analysis,” Ph.D. thesis, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
Hayden, R. , 1971, “ Roadside Noise From the Interaction of a Rolling Tire With the Road Surface,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 50, p. 113.
Gagen, M. , 1999, “ Novel Acoustic Sources From Squeezed Cavities in Car Tires,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 106(2), pp. 794–801.
Gagen, M. , 2000, “ Nonlinear Acoustic Sources in Squeezed Car Tyre Cavities,” Noise Vib. Worldwide, 31(4), pp. 9–19.
Kim, S. , Jeong, W. , Park, Y. , and Lee, S. , 2006, “ Prediction Method for Tire Air-Pumping Noise Using a Hybrid Technique,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 119(6), pp. 3799–3812.
Braun, M. , Walsh, S. , Horner, J. , and Chuter, R. , 2013, “ Noise Source Characteristics in the ISO 362 Vehicle Pass-By Noise Test: Literature Review,” Appl. Acoust., 74(11), pp. 1241–1265.
Gautam, P. , and Chandy, A. , 2015, “ A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Model for Investigating Air-Pumping Mechanisms in Air-Borne Tire Noise,” 34th Annual Meeting and Conference on Tire Science and Technology, Paper No. 4.3.
Garnier, E. , Adams, N. , and Sagaut, P. , 2009, Large Eddy Simulation for Compressible Flows, Springer, The Netherlands.
Pope, S. B. , 2000, Turbulent Flows, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
ANSYS, 2014, “ ANSYS Academic Research, Help System, ANSYS Fluent User's Guide,” Release 15.0.7 ed, ANSYS, Inc., San Jose, CA.
Takami, K. , and Furukawa, T. , 2015, “ Study of Tire Noise Characteristics With High-Resolution Synchronous Images,” EURONOISE, Maastricht, The Netherlands, May 31–June 3, pp. 2113–2118.
Eisenblaetter, J. , 2008, “ Experimental Investigation of Air Related Tyre/Road Noise Mechanisms,” Ph.D. thesis, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
Hamet, J. , Deffayet, C. , and Pallas, M. , 1990, “ Air Pumping Phenomena in Road Cavities,” INTROC 90—International Tire/Road Noise Conference 1990, Gothenburg, Sweden, pp. 19–29.
Nilsson, N. , 1979, “ Air Resonant and Vibrational Radiation—Possible Mechanisms for Noise From Cross-Bar Tires,” INTROC, pp. 93–109.
Gautam, P. , and Chandy, A. , 2015, “ Understanding Tire Acoustics Through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) of Grooves With Deforming Walls,” ASME Paper No. NCAD2015-5917.
Gautam, P. , and Chandy, A. , 2016, “ Numerical Investigation of the Air Pumping Noise Generation Mechanism in Tire Grooves,” ASME J. Vib. Acoust., 138(5), p. 051002.

## Figures

Fig. 1

Schematic diagram showing different stages of deformation of a transverse tire slot during tire/road interaction of a rotating tire

Fig. 8

dBA spectra for various far-field receivers

Fig. 9

Fig. 7

Fig. 6

Fig. 5

Pressure isocontours showing the propagation of pressure waves due to deformation of transverse slots on the downstream side of the tire

Fig. 4

Near-field and far-field receiver locations (in millimeter)

Fig. 3

Computational mesh showing polyhedral mesh in near-field domain and hexahedral mesh in outer domain

Fig. 2

Initial tetrahedral mesh (a) view from the symmetry plane, showing tetrahedral inner mesh and hexahedral outer mesh, (b) close-up view of two transverse slots, meshed using hexahedral elements, and (c) close-up view of contact patch generated by cutting off tangential surfaces

Fig. 10

Horizontal circular plane of radius 7.5 m for collection of wayside noise measurement data

Fig. 11

Polar plots of SPL (dBA) for different 1/3 Octave frequency bands, at a location 7.5 m from tire, concentric circles represent dBA

Fig. 12

Comparison of pressure signals for fine mesh (red) and coarse mesh (blue) at (a) receiver 9 (trailing edge), (b) receiver 10 (side), and (c) receiver 11 (leading edge)

Fig. 13

Time variation of acoustic energy (spectrograms) presented by Takami and Furukawa [18] for (a) receiver 9 (trailing edge) and (b) receiver 11 (leading edge)

## Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

### Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related Proceedings Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

• TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
• EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org