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Research Papers

Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester Using Rolling Mechanism

[+] Author and Article Information
Hong-Xiang Zou

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System
and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: zouhongxiang@sjtu.edu.cn

Wen-Ming Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System
and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: wenmingz@sjtu.edu.cn

Ke-Xiang Wei

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory
of Wind Generator and Its Control,
Hunan Institution of Engineering,
88 Fuxing East Road,
Xiangtan 411101, China
e-mail: kxwei@hnie.edu.cn

Wen-Bo Li

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System
and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: wenbo.jack.lee@sjtu.edu.cn

Zhi-Ke Peng

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System
and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: z.peng@sjtu.edu.cn

Guang Meng

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System
and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: gmeng@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received November 12, 2015; final manuscript received April 18, 2016; published online June 2, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Lei Zuo.

J. Vib. Acoust 138(5), 051007 (Jun 02, 2016) (16 pages) Paper No: VIB-15-1473; doi: 10.1115/1.4033493 History: Received November 12, 2015; Revised April 18, 2016

In this paper, a novel piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using rolling mechanism is presented, with the advantage of harvesting more vibration energy and reducing the impact forces caused by the oscillation. The design utilizes an array arrangement of balls rolling the piezoelectric units, and a piezoelectric unit consists of a piezoceramic (PZT) layer and two raised metal layers bonded to both sides of the PZT layer. The rolling mechanism converts the irregular reciprocating vibration into the regular unidirectional rolling motion, which can generate high and relatively stable rolling force applied to the piezoelectric units. A theoretical model is developed to characterize the rolling mechanism of a ball rolling on a piezoelectric unit. And based on the model, the effects of structural design parameters on the performances of the vibration energy harvester are analyzed. The experimental results show that the rolling-based vibration energy harvester under random vibration can generate stable amplitude direct current (DC) voltage, which can be stored more conveniently than the alternating current (AC) voltage. The experimental results also demonstrate that the vibration energy harvester can generate the power about 1.5 μW at resistive load 3.3 MΩ while the maximal rolling force is about 6.5 N. Due to the function of mechanical motion rectification and compact structure, the rolling mechanism can be suitable for integrating into a variety of devices, harvesting energy from uncertain vibration source and supplying electric energy to some devices requiring specific voltage value.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A new design of the highly compact rolling-based vibration energy harvester

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Fig. 2

Transmission process of the rolling-based vibration energy harvester

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Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the rolling motion

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Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the force of metal layer when the ball rolls on the piezoelectric unit

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Fig. 5

Experimental measurement and comparison of the rolling force: (a) experimental setup, (b) the details, and (c) comparison of the experimental data to the theoretical results

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Fig. 6

Effect of the rolling reduction g on the rolling force (a), the voltage (b), the generated energy (c) with various ball radius (R = 2 mm, R = 4 mm, R = 6 mm), and the energy conversion efficiency (d) with various ball radius (R = 2 mm, R = 4 mm, R = 6 mm)

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Fig. 7

Effect of the ball radius R on the rolling force (a), the voltage (b), the generated energy (c) with various rolling reduction (0.1 mm, g = 0.2 mm, g = 0.3 mm), and the energy conversion efficiency (d) with various rolling reduction (g = 0.1 mm, g = 0.2 mm, g = 0.3 mm)

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Fig. 8

Effect of the bond length l1 on the rolling force (a), the voltage (b), the generated energy (c) with various rolling reduction (0.1 mm, g = 0.2 mm, g = 0.3 mm), and the energy conversion efficiency (d) with various rolling reduction (0.1 mm, g = 0.2 mm, g = 0.3 mm)

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Fig. 9

Effect of the slope length l2 on the rolling force (a), the voltage (b), the generated energy (c) with various rolling reduction (0.1 mm, g = 0.2 mm, g = 0.3 mm), and the energy conversion efficiency (d) with various rolling reduction (0.1 mm, g = 0.2 mm, g = 0.3 mm)

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Fig. 10

Effect of inclination angle θ on the rolling force (a), the voltage (b), the generated energy (c) with various rolling reduction (0.1 mm, g = 0.2 mm, g = 0.3 mm), and the energy conversion efficiency (d) with various rolling reduction (0.1 mm, g = 0.2 mm, g = 0.3 mm)

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Fig. 11

Effect of the rolling length l3 on the rolling force (a), the voltage (b), the generated energy (c) with various rolling reduction (0.1 mm, g = 0.2 mm, g = 0.3 mm), and the energy conversion efficiency (d) with various rolling reduction (0.1 mm, g = 0.2 mm, g = 0.3 mm)

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Fig. 12

Effect of the width b on the rolling force (a), the voltage (b), the generated energy (c) with various rolling reduction (0.1 mm, g = 0.2 mm, g = 0.3 mm), and the energy conversion efficiency (d) with various rolling reduction (0.1 mm, g = 0.2 mm, g = 0.3 mm)

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Fig. 13

Effect of the PZT thickness on the rolling force (a), the voltage (b), and the generated energy (c) and the energy conversion efficiency (d) with various rolling reductions (0.1 mm, g = 0.2 mm, g = 0.3 mm)

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Fig. 14

The prototype of rolling-based vibration energy harvester: (a) overall view, (b) outer cylinder, (c) inner cylinder, (d) ball bushing, and (e) piezoelectric unit

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Fig. 15

Experiment setup of the rolling-based piezoelectric vibration energy harvester

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Fig. 16

Comparison of the generated voltage from numerical simulation and experiment of the rolling-based vibration energy harvester. The input amplitude and frequency are 10 mm and 2 Hz, respectively

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Fig. 17

The generated voltage from experiments of the rolling-based vibration energy harvester. The input amplitude is 10 mm and the input frequencies are 1 Hz (a), 2 Hz (b), and 3 Hz (c), respectively

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Fig. 18

The generated voltage and power across the load resistance of 3.3 MΩ when the triangle wave is input with the amplitude 12.5 mm and frequency 5 Hz: (a) experiment and (b) simulation

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Fig. 19

RMS voltage and average power versus the load resistance

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