The fault-induced impulses with uneven amplitudes and durations are always accompanied with amplitude modulation and (or) frequency modulation, which leads to that the acquired vibration/acoustic signals for rotating machine fault diagnosis always present nonlinear and nonstationary properties. Such an effect affects precise fault detection, especially when the impulses are submerged in heavy background noise. To address this issue, a nonstationary weak signal detection strategy is proposed based on a time-delayed feedback stochastic resonance (TFSR) model. The TFSR is a long-memory system that can utilize historical information to enhance the signal periodicity in the feedback process, and such an effect is beneficial to periodic signal detection. By selecting the proper parameters including time delay, feedback intensity, and calculation step in the regime of TFSR, the weak signal, the noise, and the potential can be matched with each other to an extreme, and consequently a regular output waveform with low-noise interference can be obtained with the assistant of the distinct band-pass filtering effect. Simulation study and experimental verification are performed to evaluate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed TFSR method in comparison with a traditional stochastic resonance (SR) method. The proposed method is suitable for detecting signals with strong nonlinear and nonstationary properties and (or) being subjected to heavy multiscale noise interference.