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Research Papers

Friction Induced Vibration in Windscreen Wiper Contacts

[+] Author and Article Information
Tom Reddyhoff, Oana Dobre, Daniele Dini

Tribology Group,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Imperial College London,
London SW7 2AZ, UK

Julian Le Rouzic

Institut P',
UPR 3346 CNRS,
Université de Poitiers–ISAE ENSMA,
11 Boulevard Pierre et Marie Curie,
Futuroscope Chasseneuil 86962, France

Nicolaas-Alexander Gotzen

Robert Bosch Produktie N.V.,
Electrical Drives,
EDA-WS/EGP2, Hamelendreef 80,
Tienen B-3300, Belgium

Hilde Parton

Robert Bosch Produktie N.V.,
Electrical Drives, EDA-WS/EGS1,
Hamelendreef 80,
Tienen B-3300, Belgium

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Noise Control and Acoustics Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received March 24, 2014; final manuscript received February 6, 2015; published online April 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Corina Sandu.

J. Vib. Acoust 137(4), 041009 (Aug 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: VIB-14-1093; doi: 10.1115/1.4029987 History: Received March 24, 2014; Revised February 06, 2015; Online April 09, 2015

This research is aimed at understanding the mechanisms that give rise to friction induced noise in automotive windscreen wipers, with a focus on frequencies between 500 and 3500 Hz. To study this phenomenon, experimental friction, sound, and high-speed video measurements are combined with finite element modeling of a rubber wiper/glass contact. In agreement with previous research, simultaneous sound and friction measurements showed that wiper noise in this frequency range results from the negative damping effect caused by the dependence of friction on speed in the mixed lubrication regime. Furthermore, during sliding, the friction induced noise recorded by the microphone occurred in one of two frequency ranges (close to 1000 Hz and between 2000 and 2500 Hz). These coincided closely with the eigen-frequencies of first two bending modes, predicted by finite element modeling. Experimental observations also showed the wiper to be oscillating backward and forward without any torsional motion and that the thickness of the glass had no effect on the emitted noise. These observations highlight how friction induced noise—although caused by conditions within contact—has characteristics that are determined by the structure of the excited component. A number of additional findings are made. Most importantly, both experiment and finite element modeling showed that the presence of water in contact with the wiper modulates the frequency and amplitude of the emitted noise by effectively adding mass to the vibrating system. While this is occurring, Faraday-like standing waves are observed in the water. In addition to this, friction induced vibration is shown only to occur for glass surfaces with intermediate surface energies, which is possibly due to high contact angles preventing water reaching the contact. Based on the understanding gained, a number of suggestions are made regarding means of reducing windscreen wiper noise.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram representing interacting parameters affecting friction induced vibration of wiper contacts

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of damped linear system subject to disturbances

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Fig. 3

Representation of friction versus speed behavior

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Fig. 4

Photograph of apparatus used to simulate the contact between wiper and glass

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Fig. 5

Representation of abaqus model, showing Encastre constrains, distributed mass of water and displacement applied to end of wiper

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Fig. 6

Spectrogram of friction induced noise

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Fig. 7

Friction coefficient and noise amplitude versus speed, for glass–wiper contact, in the presence of water with an applied load of 17 N/m

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Fig. 8

Water contact angle versus surface energy of glass specimens. Solid points represent specimens that produced friction induced vibration during sliding tests. In each of these tests, the applied load was 7 N/m and the sliding speed was 0.17 m/s.

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Fig. 9

Dominant frequency of emitted noise versus mass of water present at wiper lip

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Fig. 10

Photographs of meniscus during the emission of: (a) ∼900 Hz noise and (b) 2400 Hz noise

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Fig. 11

Single frame from high-speed video, showing oscillatory motion of wiper lib and propagation of water waves

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Fig. 12

Variation of intensity with time for pixels at each end of the rubber wiper

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Fig. 13

abaqus prediction of first two bending modes of rubber wiper together with their associated natural frequencies

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Fig. 14

Schematic diagram summarizing the mechanism by which windscreen wiper noise is generated

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