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Research Papers

Energy Harvesting Using an Array of Granules

[+] Author and Article Information
Kaiyuan Li

Laboratory for Nondestructive Evaluation and
Structural Health Monitoring Studies,
Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering,
University of Pittsburgh,
3700 O’Hara Street,
Pittsburgh, PA 15261

Piervincenzo Rizzo

Laboratory for Nondestructive Evaluation and
Structural Health Monitoring Studies,
Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering,
University of Pittsburgh,
3700 O’Hara Street,
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
e-mail: pir3@pitt.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received August 18, 2014; final manuscript received January 29, 2015; published online March 12, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Lei Zuo.

J. Vib. Acoust 137(4), 041002 (Aug 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: VIB-14-1309; doi: 10.1115/1.4029735 History: Received August 18, 2014; Revised January 29, 2015; Online March 12, 2015

In the last decade, there has been an increasing attention on the use of highly and weakly nonlinear solitary waves in engineering and physics. These waves can form and travel in nonlinear systems such as one-dimensional chains of particles. One engineering application of solitary waves is the fabrication of acoustic lenses, which are employed in a variety of fields ranging from biomedical imaging and surgery to defense systems and damage detection. In this paper, we propose to couple an acoustic lens to a wafer-type lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer to harvest energy from the vibration of an object tapping the lens. The lens consists of an ordered array of spherical particles in contact with a polycarbonate material where the nonlinear waves become linear and coalesce ideally into a focal point. The transducer located at the designed focal point converts the mechanical energy carried by the stress waves into electricity to power a load resistor. The performance of the designed harvester is compared to a conventional nonoptimized cantilever beam, and the experimental results show that the power generated with the nonlinear lens has the same order of magnitude of the beam.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Scheme of the energy harvesting system envisioned in this study

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Fig. 2

(a) Schematics of the wave field generated in a linear medium by a line array made of n chains made of spherical particles and (b) schematics of a circle array made of 21 chains. Adapted from Ref. [40].

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Fig. 3

Interface circuit of the energy harvester

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Fig. 4

(a) Scheme of the acoustic lens composed of 20 chains of steel beads above a polycarbonate block. (b) Photo of the acoustic lens above the linear medium block. (c) Front and (d) back view of the striker setup.

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Fig. 5

Bottom view of the nonlinear energy harvester

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Fig. 6

Finite element modeling of the PZT used in the experiment. Impedance as a function of the excitation frequency. (a) 0–300 kHz range. (b) 0–20 kHz range. In (b) the results are overlapped to the analytical results obtained using Eq. (8).

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Fig. 7

(a) Experimental protocol and (b) photo of the whole setup

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Fig. 8

(a), (c), and (e) Output voltage of the piezoelectric material when 20, ten, and four chains were used and a 27 kΩ load resistor was connected. (b), (d), and (f) Corresponding Gabor wavelet scalograms.

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Fig. 9

Average output power as a function of the load resistor for the three scenarios considered in this study. (a) day 1; (b) day 2; and (c) day 3.

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Fig. 10

Setup of the plate vibration test

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Fig. 11

Plate vibration test. (a) Output voltage of the piezoelectric material under a 27 kΩ load resistor and (b) corresponding Gabor wavelet scalogram.

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Fig. 12

Plate vibration test. Average output power as a function of the load resistor.

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Fig. 13

Cantilever beam test experimental setup, (a) top view scheme and (b) photograph

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Fig. 14

Cantilever beam test. (a) Output voltage of the piezoelectric material under a 27 kΩ load resistor and (b) Gabor wavelet scalogram.

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Fig. 15

Cantilever beam test. Average output power as a function of the load resistor.

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Fig. 16

Comparison of the energy harvesting performance among the nonlinear harvester tests with 4/2010/20 chains of beads and the cantilever beam test

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