Research Papers

Tapered Two-Layer Broadband Vibration Energy Harvesters

[+] Author and Article Information
Xingyu Xiong

School of Mechanical, Aerospace and
Civil Engineering,
The University of Manchester,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK
e-mail: xiongxingyu1@hotmail.com

S. Olutunde Oyadiji

School of Mechanical, Aerospace and
Civil Engineering,
The University of Manchester,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK
e-mail: s.o.oyadiji@manchester.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received April 4, 2014; final manuscript received December 10, 2014; published online January 29, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Mohammed Daqaq.

J. Vib. Acoust 137(3), 031014 (Jun 01, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: VIB-14-1125; doi: 10.1115/1.4029385 History: Received April 04, 2014; Revised December 10, 2014; Online January 29, 2015

Two-layer piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters using convergent and divergent tapered structures have been developed for broadband power output. The harvesters consist of a base cantilevered beam, which is attached to an upper beam by a spacer to develop a two-layer configuration. Two masses are attached to each layer to tune the resonance frequencies of each harvester and one of these masses also serves as the spacer. By varying the positions of the masses, the convergent and divergent tapered harvesters can generate close resonance frequencies and considerable power output in the first two modes. A broadband harvester design strategy is introduced based on a modal approach, which determines the modal performance using mass ratio and modal electromechanical coupling coefficient (EMCC). The required modal parameters are derived using the finite element method. Mass ratio represents the influence of the modal mechanical behavior on the power density directly. Since the dominant mode causes the remaining modes to have smaller mass ratios, smaller EMCC, and poor performance, the design strategy involves the selection of the harvester configurations with close resonances and favorable values of mass ratio initially, and deriving the EMCC and power density of those selected configurations.

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Fig. 7

MSAPD FRFs of two-layer, one-mass harvester with mass position P0: (a) CTC models and (b) DTC models

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Fig. 6

Modal structural performance and screening results of tapered two-layer harvester with one dash mass; (a) and (b) f1 and f2; (c) frequency ratio f2/f1; (d) and (e) N1 and N2; (f) screening results when f2/f1 < 2 and N > 0.1

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Fig. 5

Numbering of mass positions; P07: the position of M+1 is 0 and M+2 is 7

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Fig. 4

Typical two-layer tapered harvesters: (a) two-layer with one dash mass harvester CTC3-1MP0 and (b) two-layer with two masses harvester DTC3-2MP09

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Fig. 3

Flow chart of the configurational optimization strategy for multiresonance harvesters

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Fig. 2

Flow chart of a modal approach for harvester designs (vibration energy harvester (VEH))

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Fig. 1

Maximum MSAPD as function of k2Qm for different mass ratio N

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Fig. 8

Modal structural performance of tapered two-layer harvester with two masses: (a) and (b) f1 and f2; (c) frequency ratio f2/f1; (d) and (e) N1 and N2

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Fig. 9

Screening results of tapered two-layer harvester with two masses. (a) f2/f1 < 2 and N > 0.1; (b) f2/f1 < 1.5 and N > 0.2.

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Fig. 16

MSAPD FRFs of DTC2-2MP07 with different damping ratios

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Fig. 10

MSAPD FRFs of tapered two-layer harvester with two masses: (a) typical CTC models; (b) typical DTC models; and (c) models with mass position P09

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Fig. 11

Phase of two-layer two-masses harvesters with mass position P09

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Fig. 12

Mass ratio and EMCC of the configurations with mass positions from P00 to P09: (a) and (b) N1 and k1; (c) and (d) N2 and k2

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Fig. 13

EMCC for different piezoelectric coverage and for (a) mode 1 and (b) mode 2

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Fig. 14

Electrical displacement mode shapes. (a) and (b) modes 1 and 2 of CTC4-2MP02-Pfull; (c) and (d) modes 1 and 2 of DTC4-2MP08-Pfull

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Fig. 15

MSAPD FRFs of typical tapered harvester with different piezoelectric coverage: (a) and (b) CTC models; (c) and (d) DTC models; (e) and (f) RC models




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