A nonlinear hybrid discrete-continuous dynamic model is established to analyze the steady-state response of a pulley-belt system with a one-way clutch and belt bending stiffness. For the first time, the translating belt spans in pulley-belt systems coupled with one-way clutches are modeled as axially moving viscoelastic beams. Moreover, the model considers the rotations of the driving pulley, the driven pulley, and the accessory. The differential quadrature and integral quadrature methods are developed for space discretization of the nonlinear integropartial-differential equations in the dynamic model. Furthermore, the four-stage Runge–Kutta algorithm is employed for time discretization of the nonlinear piecewise ordinary differential equations. The time series are numerically calculated for the driven pulley, the accessory, and the translating belt spans. Based on the time series, the fast Fourier transform is used for obtaining the natural frequencies of the nonlinear vibration. The torque-transmitting directional behavior of the one-way clutch is revealed by the steady-state of the clutch torque in the primary resonances. The frequency-response curves of the translating belt, the driven pulley, and the accessory show that the one-way clutch reduces the resonance of the pulley-belt system. Furthermore, the belt cross section's aspect ratio significantly affects the dynamic response.