The scattering of acoustic waves by a chain of elastic spheres in liquid is studied. The incident wave, the scattering wave in the host, and the transmitted waves (including longitudinal and transverse wave modes) in the elastic spheres are all expanded in the form of a series of spherical wave functions. The total waves are obtained by the addition of all scattered waves from individual elastic sphere. The addition theorem of spherical wave function is used to perform the coordinates transform for the scattering waves from different spheres. The expansion coefficients of scattering waves are determined by the interface condition between the elastic spheres and the liquid host. The scattering cross section and the scattering amplitude in far field are computed as numerical examples. Two cases, steel spheres and lead spheres embedded in water, are considered in the numerical examples.