In this paper, localization phenomena of in-plane time-harmonic elastic waves propagating in layered phononic crystals (PNCs) with different fractal superlattices are studied. For this purpose, oblique wave propagation in layered structures is considered. To describe wave localization phenomena, the localization factor is applied and computed by the transfer matrix method. Three typical fractal superlattices are considered, namely, the Cantorlike fractal superlattice (CLFSL), the golden-section fractal superlattice (GSFSL), and the Fibonacci fractal superlattice (FFSL). Numerical results for the localization factors of CLFSL, GSFSL, and FFSL are presented and analyzed. The results show that the localization factor of a CLFSL exhibits an approximate similarity and band-splitting properties. The number of decomposed bandgaps of the GSFSL and FFSL follows the composition of the special fractal structures. In addition, with increasing fractal series, the value of the localization factor is enlarged. These results are of great importance for structure design of fractal PNCs.