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Research Papers

Adaptive Concepts for Herschel–Quincke Waveguides

[+] Author and Article Information
Jose S. Alonso

e-mail: jalonsom@vt.edu

Ricardo A. Burdisso

e-mail: rburdiss@vt.edu
Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University,
Blacksburg, VA 24061-0238

Douglas Ivers

LORD Corporation,
110 Lord Dr., Cary, NC 27511
e-mail: doug_ivers@alum.mit.edu

Hwa W. Kwan

UTC Aerospace Systems,
850 Lagoon Dr., Chula Vista, CA 91910
e-mail: h.kwan@goodrich.com

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: UTC Aerospace Systems, 850 Lagoon Dr., M/Z 107 W, Chula Vista, CA 91915.

Contributed by the Noise Control and Acoustics Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Vibration and Acoustics. Manuscript received May 25, 2012; final manuscript received January 3, 2013; published online April 25, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Theodore Farabee.

J. Vib. Acoust 135(3), 031016 (Apr 25, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: VIB-12-1160; doi: 10.1115/1.4023830 History: Received May 25, 2012; Revised January 03, 2013

The enhancement of Herschel–Quincke (HQ) waveguides to incorporate adaptive capabilities is investigated. Passive HQ waveguides are known to provide noise attenuation in pipes and ducts at selective narrow frequency bands associated with their resonances. The approach to achieve adaptation is to produce a frequency shift in these resonances to allow targeting incoming tonal noise of variable frequency. The frequency shift is obtained by placing a variable cross-section constriction along the interior of the waveguide. Two adaptive devices are considered. The first consists of a ball with fixed diameter that can be axially displaced inside the waveguide. Then, the frequency tuning is obtained as a function of the ball position. The second device consists of a diaphragm at fixed axial location which can be deformed to obtain a variable cross section. In this case, the frequency shift is obtained as a function of the diaphragm deflection. The internal acoustic dynamics of the two devices are investigated both analytically and experimentally. The created constriction inside the HQ waveguide is modeled as a series of constant cross-section tube elements with small finite area jump between adjacent pieces. The model is validated by comparing the predicted dynamics with experimental data from an extended impedance tube setup based on the two-microphone technique. Finally, attenuation predictions on a one-dimensional pipe are presented in order to illustrate the performance of the proposed adaptive HQ waveguides.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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References

Herschel, J. F. W., 1833, “On the Absorption of Light by Coloured Media, Viewed in Connexion With the Undulatory Theory,” Philos. Mag. J. Sci., 3, pp. 401–412. [CrossRef]
Quincke, G., 1866, “Ueber Interferenzapparate fur Schallwellen,” Ann. Phys. Chem., 128, pp. 177–192. [CrossRef]
Stewart, G. W., 1928, “The Theory of the Herschel–Quincke Tube,” Phys. Rev., 31, pp. 696–698. [CrossRef]
Selamet, A., Dickey, N. S., and Novak, J. M., 1994, “The Hershcel-Quincke Tube: A Theoretical, Computational, and Experimental Investigation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 96(5), pp. 3177–3185. [CrossRef]
Smith, J. P., and Burdisso, R. A., 2002, “Experiments With Fixed and Adaptive Herschel–Quincke Waveguides on the Pratt and Whitney JT15D Engine,” NASA/CR-2002-211430.
Hallez, R. F., Smith, J. P., and Burdisso, R. A., 2000, “Control of Higher-Order Modes in Ducts Using Arrays of Herschel–Quincke Waveguides,” Control of Vibration and Noise: New Millennium, 2000 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Orlando, FL, November 5–10.
Kinsler, L. E., Frey, A. R., Coppens, A. B., and Sanders, J. V., 2000, Fundamentals of Acoustics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 286–288.
Alfredson, R. J., 1972, “The Propagation of Sound in a Circular Duct of Continuously Varying Cross-Sectional Area,” J. Sound Vib., 23(4), pp. 433–442. [CrossRef]
Schuhmacher, A., and Rasmussen, K. B., 1999, “Modeling of Horn-Type Loudspeakers for Outdoor Sound Reinforcement Systems,” Appl. Acoust., 56, pp. 25–37. [CrossRef]
ASTM E1050-98, 1998, “Standard Test Method for Impedance and Absorption of Acoustical Materials Using a Tube, Two Microphones and a Digital Frequency Analysis System,” American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, PA.
Cummings, A., 1974, “Sound Transmission in Curved Duct Bends,” J. Sound Vib., 35(4), pp. 451–477.
Firth, D., and Fahy, F. J., 1987, “Acoustic Characteristics of Circular Bends in Pipes,” J. Sound Vib., 97(2), pp. 287–303. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of Herschel–Quincke (HQ) tube on a one-dimensional pipe

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of adaptive HQ tubes using the (a) ball and (b) diaphragm devices

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Fig. 3

Passive HQ tube model as a straight tube with plane waves

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Fig. 4

Lumped-element model for the longitudinal modes inside a straight waveguide with open ends

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Model of straight waveguide with single constriction

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Fig. 6

Modeling approach for a straight waveguide with smooth constriction

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Fig. 7

Modeling of a continuously varying cross-sectional area waveguide

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Fig. 8

Schematic showing the ball-in device inside a straight waveguide

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Fig. 9

Schematic of the experimental approach

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Fig. 10

Approach to experimentally determine the dynamics of a nonsymmetric HQ tube configuration

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Fig. 11

Experimental setup using the extended two-microphone technique

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Fig. 12

Impedance matrix coefficients for the passive HQ tube (Z1 = Z4, Z2 = Z3)

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Fig. 13

Impedance matrix coefficients for the ball-in HQ tube. Rolling ball is placed at the center (b = 0 in.).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Impedance matrix coefficients for the ball-in HQ tube. Rolling ball is placed at 3.0 in. from the center (b = 3 in).

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Fig. 15

Impedance matrix coefficients for the diaphragm HQ tube. Applied pressure is −2.0 psi.

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Fig. 16

Impedance matrix coefficients for the diaphragm HQ tube. Applied pressure is 4.0 psi.

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Fig. 17

Frequency adaptation of resonance frequencies for ball-in HQ tube

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Fig. 18

Frequency adaptation of resonance frequencies for diaphragm HQ tube

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Fig. 19

Adaptive transmission loss due to ball-in HQ tube

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Fig. 20

Adaptive transmission loss due to diaphragm HQ tube

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