Acoustic metamaterials are those structurally engineered materials that are composed of periodic cells designed in such a fashion to yield specific material properties (density and bulk modulus) that would affect the wave propagation pattern within in a specific way. All the currently exerted efforts are focused on studying passive metamaterials with fixed material properties. In this paper, the emphasis is placed on the development of a new class of composite one-dimensional active acoustic metamaterials (CAAMM) with effective densities and bulk moduli that are programmed to vary according to any prescribed patterns along its volume. A cylindrical water-filled cylinder coupled to two piezoelectric elements form a composite cell to act as a base unit for a periodic metamaterial structure. Two different configurations are considered. In the first configuration, a piezoelectric panel is flash-mounted to the face of the cylinder, while the other is side-mounted to the cylinder wall, introducing a variable stiffness along the wave propagation path. In the second configuration, the face-mounted piezoelectric panel remains unchanged, while the side-mounted panel is replaced with an active Helmholtz resonator with piezoelectric base panel. A detailed theoretical lumped-parameter model for the two configurations is present, from which the stiffness of both active elements is controlled via charge feedback control to yield arbitrary homogenized effective bulk modulus and density over a very wide frequency range. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance characteristics of the proposed. The CAAMM presents a viable approach to the development of effective domains with a controllable wave propagation pattern to suit many applications.