Research Papers

Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of the Nonlinear Characteristics of an Air Spring With an Orifice

[+] Author and Article Information
Toshihiko Asami

Power Engineering Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Hyogo,
2167 Shosha, Himeji,
Hyogo, 671-2280, Japan

Yasutaka Yokota

Graduate School Student

Tomohiko Ise

Assistant Professor

Itsuro Honda

Associate Professor
Thermal Engineering Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical and
System Engineering,
Graduate School of Engineering,
University of Hyogo,
2167 Shosha, Himeji,
Hyogo, 671-2280, Japan

Hiroya Sakamoto

Tokkyokiki Corporation,
10-133 Minamihatsushima-cho, Amagasaki,
Hyogo 660-0833, Japan

The actual restoring and damping forces of the experimental apparatus contain, in part, source origins other than air flow in the air springs. These are designated by symbols kr and cr in Fig. 5.

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Vibration and Acoustics. Manuscript received October 14, 2011; final manuscript received July 29, 2012; published online February 4, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Philip Bayly.

J. Vib. Acoust 135(1), 011012 (Feb 04, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: VIB-11-1244; doi: 10.1115/1.4007677 History: Received October 14, 2011; Revised July 29, 2012

We herein propose a simple but accurate method for calculating the dynamic properties of an air spring that uses an orifice to produce a damping force. Air springs are commonly used in rail, automotive, and vibration isolation applications. However, because this type of air spring has nonlinear flow characteristics, accurate approaches have not yet been proposed. The restoring and damping forces in an air spring with an orifice damper vary with the amplitude of the body. This amplitude dependency has not been considered in previous studies. We herein propose a simple model for calculating the air spring constant and damping coefficient. However, this requires iterative calculation due to the nonlinearity of the air spring. The theoretical and experimental results are found to agree well with each other. The theoretical equations provide an effective tool for air spring design.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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Fig. 1

Vibration model for an air spring

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Fig. 2

Numerical and analytical solutions of the differential equations (f = 20 Hz, dor = 1.5 mm)

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Fig. 3

Air spring cross section

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Fig. 4

Experimental setup

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Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the vibration model

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Fig. 6

Damping coefficient of the air spring (without orifice)

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Fig. 7

Spring constant caused by the rubber diaphragm

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Fig. 8

Theoretical spring constant versus frequency for various discharge coefficients Cor (dor = 2.0 mm, X0 = 0.3 mm)

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Fig. 9

Comparison between experimental and theoretical values for several input amplitudes (dor = 1.5 mm)

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Fig. 10

Comparison between experimental and theoretical values for several orifice diameters (X0 = 0.1 mm)




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