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Research Papers

Measurements of Piezoelectric Coefficient d33 of Lead Zirconate Titanate Thin Films Using a Mini Force Hammer

[+] Author and Article Information
Qing Guo

Graduate Student

G. Z. Cao

Professor
Department of Material Science
& Engineering,
University of Washington,
Seattle, WA 98195-2120

I. Y. Shen

Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Washington,
Seattle, WA 98195-2600
e-mail: ishen@u.washington.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNALOF VIBRATIONAND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received April 20, 2011; final manuscript received April 2, 2012; published online February 4, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Wei-Hsin Liao.

J. Vib. Acoust 135(1), 011003 (Feb 04, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: VIB-11-1084; doi: 10.1115/1.4006881 History: Received April 20, 2011; Revised April 02, 2012

Lead zirconate titanate (PbZrxTi1-xO3, or PZT) is a piezoelectric material widely used as sensors and actuators. For microactuators, PZT often appears in the form of thin films to maintain proper aspect ratios. One major challenge encountered is accurate measurement of piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films. In this paper, we present a simple, low-cost, and effective method to measure piezoelectric coefficient d33 of PZT thin films through use of basic principles in mechanics of vibration. A small impact hammer with a tiny tip acts perpendicularly to the PZT thin-film surface to generate an impulsive force. In the meantime, a load cell at the hammer tip measures the impulsive force and a charge amplifier measures the responding charge of the PZT thin film. Then the piezoelectric coefficient d33 is obtained from the measured force and charge based on piezoelectricity and a finite element modeling. We also conduct a thorough parametric study to understand the sensitivity of this method on various parameters, such as substrate material, boundary conditions, specimen size, specimen thickness, thickness ratio, and PZT thin-film material. Two rounds of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of this new method. The first experiment is to measure d33 of a PZT disk resonator whose d33 is known. Experimental results show that d33 measured via this method is as accurate as that from the manufacturer's specifications within its tolerance. The second experiment is to measure d33 of PZT thin films deposited on silicon substrates. With the measured d33, we predict the displacement of PZT thin-film membrane microactuators. In the meantime, the actuator displacement is measured via a laser Doppler vibrometer. The predicted and measured displacements agree very well validating the accuracy of this new method.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Quasi-static analysis of substrate and PZT thin film

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Fig. 2

Finite element model of circular disk resonator to determine α

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Fig. 3

Charge (Q) versus force (F) plots from finite element analysis

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Fig. 4

Experimental setup

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Fig. 5

Sample force and charge measurements in time domain for thick-film PZT specimen

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Fig. 6

Calibrated charge-force relationship (Q versus F) from experiments for thick-film PZT

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Fig. 7

Finite element model of thin-film PZT specimen

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Fig. 8

Charge-force relationship (Q versus F) from experiments for thin-film PZT

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Fig. 9

Schematic drawing of PZT thin-film membrane actuator

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Fig. 10

Calibrated displacement-voltage relationship (βx versus V) from experiments for PZT thin-film actuator

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