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Research Papers

Energy Harvesting of Thermoacoustic-Piezo Systems With a Dynamic Magnifier

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Nouh

Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: mnouh@umd.edu

O. Aldraihem

Mechanical Engineering Department,
King Saud University, King Abdulaziz City of Science & Technology (KACST),
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 11421
e-mail: odraihem@ksu.edu.sa

A. Baz

Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742;
e-mail: baz@umd.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received July 10, 2011; final manuscript received December 14, 2011; published online October 29, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Wei-Hsin Liao.

J. Vib. Acoust 134(6), 061015 (Oct 29, 2012) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005834 History: Received July 10, 2011; Revised December 14, 2011

This study presents a novel approach for enhancing the performance of one of the promising systems in the field of energy harvesting, namely the standing wave thermoacoustic engine. Currently, conventional thermoacoustic engines have been integrated with piezoelectric membranes to harness the acoustic energy associated with this class of engines. In these thermoacoustic-piezoelectric (TAP) harvesters, the acoustic to electric energy conversion efficiency vary typically from 10% to 15%. In this paper, an attempt is made to magnify the electric energy harnessed from the piezo membranes by providing the harvester with a dynamic magnifier. The proposed system will be referred to as a dynamically magnified thermoacoustic-piezo system (DMTAP). The main purpose of the dynamic magnifier, as implied by the name, is to magnify the strain experienced by the piezo-element. With proper selection of the design parameters of such a magnifier, the output power can be significantly increased. The theory as well as the equations governing the operation of the system before and after the addition of the dynamic magnification is presented. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the performance characteristics and merits of the improved (DMTAP) system as compared with those of a conventional TAP.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of standing-wave thermoacoustic engine integrated with a piezoelectric element (TAP)

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Fig. 2

Schematic of standing-wave thermoacoustic engine integrated with a dynamic magnifier system (DMTAP)

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Fig. 3

Force balance diagrams for (a) the piezo-element in the TAP case and (b) the magnifier mass and piezo-element in the DMTAP case (not including piezo-element internal stiffness s and damping b or internal stiffness km and damping cm of magnifier mass)

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Fig. 4

Variation of dimensionless frequencies with resonator length for TAP, DMTAP, piezo-element, closed-closed tube, and closed-open tube

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Fig. 5

Pressure and velocity waveforms for TAP and DMTAP systems in comparison with closed-closed and closed-open tubes for resonator lengths of (a) 1.5 cm and (b) 4 cm

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Fig. 6

Frequency response of conversion efficiency ηe and corresponding magnification ratio x2m/x1 for a TAP and a DMTAP at (a) mm = 0, kc = ∞, (b) mm = m, kc = 0.75 s, (c) mm = m, kc = 0.11 s (double headed arrows indicate frequencies at which magnification ratio is equal to 1)

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Fig. 7

Dimensionless harvested electric power output and corresponding acoustic to electric energy conversion efficiency for an electric load of 10 Ω

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Fig. 8

Dimensionless harvested electric power output and corresponding acoustic to electric energy conversion efficiency for an electric load of 100 Ω

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Fig. 9

Dimensionless harvested electric power output and corresponding acoustic to electric energy conversion efficiency for an electric load of 1000 Ω

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Fig. 10

Dimensionless harvested electric power output and corresponding acoustic to electric energy conversion efficiency for an electric load of 10|000 Ω

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Fig. 11

Geometric parameters of resonator and stack

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Fig. 12

Temperature difference required to onset acoustic oscillations for TAP and DMTAP of tube lengths 1.5 and 4 cm

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