The dynamic responses of a pile group embedded in a layered poroelastic half-space subjected to axial harmonic loads is investigated in this study. Based on Biot’s theory, the frequency domain fundamental solution for a vertical circular patch load applied in the layered poroelastic half-space is derived via the transmission and reflection matrix (TRM) method. Utilizing Muki’s method, the second kind of Fredholm integral equations describing the dynamic interaction between the layered half-space and the pile group is constructed. The proposed methodology was validated by comparing the results of this paper with a known result. Numerical results show that in a two-layered half-space, for the closely populated pile group with a rigid cap, the upper softer layer thickness has different influences on the central pile and the corner piles, while for the sparse pile group, it has almost the same influence on all the piles. For a three-layer half-space, the presence of a stiffer middle layer in the layered half-space will enhance the impedance of the pile group significantly, while a softer middle layer will reduce the impedance of the pile group.