Integration of a Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT)-Based Active Noise Canceller and 3D Audio Processor to Headsets

[+] Author and Article Information
Mingsian R. Bai

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsin-Chu 300, Taiwanmsbai@mail.nctu.edu.tw

Jianliang Lin

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsin-Chu 300, Taiwan

J. Vib. Acoust 129(5), 567-576 (Feb 26, 2007) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2748461 History: Received September 28, 2005; Revised February 26, 2007

This paper seeks to enhance the quality of spatial sound reproduction by integrating two advanced signal processing technologies, active noise control (ANC) and three-dimensional (3D) audio, to a headset. The ANC module of the headset is designed based on the quantitative feedback theory (QFT), which is a unified theory that emphasizes the use of feedback for achieving the desired system performance tolerances in the face of plant uncertainties and plant disturbances. Performance, stability, and robustness of the closed-loop system have been taken into account in the loop-shaping procedure within a general framework of the QFT. On the other hand, 3D audio processing algorithms including the head-related-transfer-function and the reverberator are realized on the platform of a fixed-point digital signal processor. Listening tests were conducted to evaluate the proposed system in terms of various subjective performance indices. The experimental results revealed that the 3D headset is capable of delivering superior rendering quality of localization and spaciousness, with the aid of the ANC module.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 3

IIR filter structures of reverberator: (a) The structure of comb filter. The parameter bp is the gain of absorbent lowpass filter and gi is the gain of comb filter. (b) The structure of ten parallel comb filters and three-layer nested allpass filters. (c) The structure of nested allpass/comb reverberator in conjunction with the early reflection module obtained using the image method.

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Figure 4

The open-loop system including a headset, an embedded capacitive microphone, and a power amplifier circuit

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Figure 5

The measured frequency response of the plant between 100kHz and 25.6KHz

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Figure 6

The block diagram of the active headset system. The unity-feedback system is the QFT-based ANC module, whereas the feedforward system is the 3D spatial audio module.

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Figure 7

Nichols chart of the plant templates measured at frequencies 500, 1kHz, 1.5kHz, 2kHz, 3kHz, and 4kHz.

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Figure 8

QFT bounds at several frequencies, indicated with different colors. The frequencies are indicated in the legend at the top left corner. (a) Robust margin bounds at frequencies 500, 1kHz, 1.5kHz, 2kHz, 3kHz, 4kHz. (b) Robust output disturbance rejection bounds at frequencies 500, 1kHz, 1.5kHz. (c) Robust spillover rejection bounds at frequencies 2kHz, 3kHz, 4kHz.

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Figure 10

Nichols chart of the open-loop response G(s)P(s): (a) uncompensated open-loop response and its bounds; and (b) compensated open-loop response with a sixth-order controller

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Figure 11

Nyquist diagram of the open-loop system G(s)P(s)

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Figure 12

The sensitivity function (dashed line) and the complementary sensitivity function (solid line)

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Figure 13

The QFT-based active noise canceller: (a) circuit diagram; (b) photo

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Figure 14

Frequency response functions of the feedback controller: (solid line) designed; (dashed line) implemented

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Figure 15

Results of the active noise cancellation: (a) sound pressure spectra measured by the microphone with (dashed line) and without (solid line) the active control; and (b) sensitivity function; (solid line) measurement; (dashed line) simulation

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Figure 16

The average grades of subjective indices obtained from the listening test

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Figure 9

QFT loop-shaping on the Nichols chart: (a) superposition of all bounds; (b) worst-case among all bounds

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Figure 1

Schematic diagram of a typical room response

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Figure 2

The impulse response obtained by using the image-source method with 30th-order reflections. The room dimension is 10m×8m×3m and absorption coefficient is 0.8.




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