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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Optimal Design and Implementation of an Omnidirectional Panel Speaker Array Using the Genetic Algorithm

[+] Author and Article Information
Mingsian R. Bai, Jihting Kuo

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsin-Chu 300, Taiwan, ROC

J. Vib. Acoust 126(4), 553-560 (Dec 21, 2004) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1805004 History: Received August 01, 2002; Revised March 01, 2004; Online December 21, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Bai,  M. R., and Huang,  T., 2001, “Development of Panel Loudspeaker System: Design, Evaluation and Enhancement,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 109, pp. 2751–2761.
Johnson, D. F., and Dudgeon, D. F., 1993, Array Signal Processing Concepts and Techniques Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Haupt,  R. L., 1994, “Thinned Arrays Using Genetic Algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 42, pp. 993–999.
Smith,  D. L., 1997, “Discrete-Element Line Arrays: Their Modeling and Optimization,” J. Audio Eng. Soc., 45, pp. 949–964.
Aarts,  R. M., and Janssen,  A. J. E. M., 2000, “On Analytic Design of Loudspeaker Arrays with Uniform Radiation Characteristics,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 107, pp. 287–292.
Beenker,  G. F. M., Claasen,  T. A. C. M., and Hermens,  P. W. C., 1985, “Binary Sequences With a Maximally Flat Amplitude Spectrum,” Philips J. Res., 40, pp. 289–304.
Golay,  M. J. E., 1982, “The Merit Factor of Long, Low Autocorrelation Binary Sequences,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, 28, pp. 543.
Belew, R. K., and Vose, M. D., 1997, Foundations of Genetic Algorithms, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, New York.
Augspurger,  G. L., 1990, “Near-Field and Far-Field Performance of Large Woofer Arrays,” J. Audio Eng. Soc., 38, pp. 231–236.
Meyer,  D. G., 1984, “Digital Control of Loudspeaker Array Directivity,” J. Audio Eng. Soc., 32, pp. 747–754.
Oppenheim, A. V., and Schafer, R. W., 1989, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Figures

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A linearly uniform linear array. (a) The schematic of a panel speaker array, (b) the signal processing unit of the panel speaker array
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Beam pattern of a ULA plotted against the dimensionless angle u and the look angle θ
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The full band design and the bandpass design for the omnidirectional array. Solid line represents bandpass beam pattern, dashed line represents full band beam pattern
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Binary encoding of array coefficients of GA
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Flow chart of the GA procedure
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GA operators (a) crossover; (b) mutation
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Learning curve of the fitness function in the GA-based 13×1 array (preliminary scheme)
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Comparison of beam patterns between the QPA and the GA (preliminary scheme) at the same efficiency requirement
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Beam pattern obtained using the modified scheme, plotted against the dimensionless angle
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Comparison of beam patterns between the two designs using the preliminary scheme and the modified scheme, respectively. The frequency is 1123 Hz, and the spacing d=6.7 cm
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Measured beam pattern of the 5×1 panel speaker array in the frequency 3 kHz. The array is designed using the preliminary scheme of the GA procedure (dashed line: uncompensated; solid line: compensated using the GA design)
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Measured beam pattern of the 3×3 panel speaker matrix in the frequency 1514 Hz. The array is designed using the preliminary scheme of the GA procedure (dashed line: uncompensated; solid line: compensated using the GA design)
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Measured beam patterns of the 5×1 panel speaker array in the frequency 1123 Hz (dashed line: preliminary scheme; solid line: modified scheme)
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Measured beam patterns of the 3×3 panel speaker matrix in the frequency 879 Hz (dashed line: preliminary scheme; solid line: modified scheme)

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